Next Article in Journal
Correlation between Non-Polio Acute Flaccid Paralysis Rates with Pulse Polio Frequency in India
Previous Article in Journal
The Trade-Off between Optimizing Flight Patterns and Human Health: A Case Study of Aircraft Noise in Queens, NY, USA
Article Menu
Issue 8 (August) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(8), 1754;

Interaction between Parental Education and Household Wealth on Children’s Obesity Risk

Institute of Health Science, China Medical University, No. 77 Puhe Road, Shenyang North New Area, Shenyang 110122, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 12 June 2018 / Revised: 8 August 2018 / Accepted: 10 August 2018 / Published: 15 August 2018
Full-Text   |   PDF [518 KB, uploaded 15 August 2018]   |  


Parents’ education and household wealth cannot be presumed to operate independently of each other. However, in traditional studies on the impact of social inequality on obesity, education and financial wealth tend to be viewed as separable processes. The present study examines the interaction of parents’ education and household wealth in relation to childhood obesity. Anthropometric measurement and questionnaire surveys were carried out on 3670 children (aged 9–12 years) and their parents from 26 elementary schools in northeast China. Results showed that the interaction term was significant for household wealth and father’s education (p < 0.01), while no significant interaction between household wealth and mother’s education was found. In a separate analysis, the interaction was statistically significant among girls for obesity risk based on BMI (p = 0.02), and among urban children for both obesity risk based on BMI (p = 0.01) and abdominal obesity risk based on WHR (p = 0.03). Specifically, when household wealth increased from the first quintile to the fifth quintile, OR for father’s education decreased from higher than 1 (OR = 1.95; 95% CI: 1.12–3.38) to non-significant for girl’s obesity risk, from non-significant to lower than 1 for urban children’s obesity risk (OR = 0.52; 95% CI: 0.32–0.86 for the fourth quintile; OR = 0.37; 95% CI: 0.19–0.73 for the fifth quintile) and from higher than 1 (OR = 1.61; 95% CI: 1.04–2.05) to non-significant for urban children’s abdominal obesity risk. These findings indicate that father’s education level interacts with household wealth to influence obesity among girls and urban children in northeast China. View Full-Text
Keywords: childhood obesity; parents’ education; household wealth; health inequalities childhood obesity; parents’ education; household wealth; health inequalities

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material


Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Liu, Y.; Ma, Y.; Jiang, N.; Song, S.; Fan, Q.; Wen, D. Interaction between Parental Education and Household Wealth on Children’s Obesity Risk. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 1754.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top