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Open AccessArticle

Risk Reduction Behaviors Regarding PM2.5 Exposure among Outdoor Exercisers in the Nanjing Metropolitan Area, China

School of Public Health, Southeast University, Nanjing 210003, China
Department of Environmental Health, Nanjing Municipal Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Nanjing 210003, China
School of Civil Engineering, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060, China
Insurance Work and Health Group, Faculty of Medicine Nursing and Health Sciences, Monash University, Melbourne 3003, Australia
Department of Construction Management, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing 210037, China
Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Biomaterials and Devices, Southeast University, Nanjing 210009, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(8), 1728;
Received: 29 May 2018 / Revised: 20 July 2018 / Accepted: 7 August 2018 / Published: 12 August 2018
PDF [1294 KB, uploaded 12 August 2018]


Aims: This study aimed to describe risk reduction behaviors regarding ambient particulate matter with a diameter of 2.5 μm or less (PM2.5) among outdoor exercisers and to explore potential factors influencing those behaviors in the urban area of Nanjing, China. Method: A cross-sectional convenience sample survey was conducted among 302 outdoor exercisers in May 2015. Descriptive analysis was used to describe demographics, outdoor physical activity patterns, knowledge of PM2.5 and risk reduction behaviors. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was then used to explore factors that influence the adoption of risk reduction behaviors. Results: The most common behavior to reduce PM2.5 exposure was minimizing the times for opening windows on hazy days (75.5%), and the least common one was using air purifiers (19.3%). Two thirds of respondents indicated that they wore face masks when going outside in the haze (59.5%), but only 13.6% of them would wear professional antismog face masks. Participants adopting risk reduction behaviors regarding PM2.5 exposure tended to be females, 50–60 year-olds, those with higher levels of knowledge about PM2.5 and those who had children. Conclusions: These findings indicate the importance of improving knowledge about PM2.5 among outdoor exercisers. Educational interventions should also be necessary to guide the public to take appropriate precautionary measures when undertaking outdoor exercise in high PM2.5 pollution areas. View Full-Text
Keywords: risk reduction behavior; PM2.5; outdoor exercisers; influencing factors; China risk reduction behavior; PM2.5; outdoor exercisers; influencing factors; China

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Xiong, L.; Li, J.; Xia, T.; Hu, X.; Wang, Y.; Sun, M.; Tang, M. Risk Reduction Behaviors Regarding PM2.5 Exposure among Outdoor Exercisers in the Nanjing Metropolitan Area, China. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 1728.

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