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Predicting the Time Spent Playing Computer and Mobile Games among Medical Undergraduate Students Using Interpersonal Relations and Social Cognitive Theory: A Cross-Sectional Survey in Chongqing, China

1,2,3,†, 1,2,3,†, 1,2,3, 1,2,3, 1,2,3, 4,5,6 and 1,2,3,*
1
School of Public Health and Management, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016, China
2
Research Center for Medicine and Social Development, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016, China
3
The Innovation Center for Social Risk Governance in Health, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016, China
4
Department of Behavioural and Environmental Health, Jackson State University, Jackson, MS 39213, USA
5
Health for All, Omaha, NE 68144, USA
6
College of Health Sciences, Walden University, Minneapolis, MN 55401, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(8), 1664; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15081664
Received: 10 July 2018 / Revised: 30 July 2018 / Accepted: 4 August 2018 / Published: 6 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Internet and Mobile Phone Addiction: Health and Educational Effects)
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Abstract

Background: Computer and mobile games are widely used among undergraduate students worldwide, especially in China. Our objective was to predict the time spent playing computer and mobile games based on interpersonal relations and social cognitive theory constructs (i.e., expectation, self-efficacy, and self-control). Methods: The cross-sectional survey was conducted in two medical universities using a sample of 1557 undergraduate students recruited by cluster sampling. The five-point Likert questionnaire was jointly developed by researchers from Chongqing Medical University and Jackson State University. Results: Approximately 30% and 70% of the students played computer and mobile games, respectively. The daily times spent by participants on computer games were 25.61 ± 73.60 min (weekdays) and 49.96 ± 128.60 min (weekends), and 66.07 ± 154.65 min (weekdays) and 91.82 ± 172.94 min (weekends) on mobile games. Students with high scores of interpersonal relations but low scores of self-efficacy spent prolonged time playing computer games on weekdays and weekends (p < 0.05 for all). Students with low scores of expectation spent prolonged time playing computer games on weekdays (p < 0.05). Students with high scores of interpersonal relations but low scores of self-efficacy and self-control spent prolonged time playing mobile games on weekdays and weekends (p < 0.05 for all). Conclusions: The prevalence and duration of playing mobile games were higher than those of playing computer games among medical undergraduate students in Chongqing, China. This study determined the interpersonal relations, self-efficacy, self-control, and expectation of the students at the time of playing computer and mobile games. Future studies may consider studying the interaction among game-related behaviours, environments, and personality characteristics. View Full-Text
Keywords: time; gaming disorder; interpersonal relations; self-efficacy; self-control; expectations time; gaming disorder; interpersonal relations; self-efficacy; self-control; expectations
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Chen, L.; Liu, R.; Zeng, H.; Xu, X.; Zhu, R.; Sharma, M.; Zhao, Y. Predicting the Time Spent Playing Computer and Mobile Games among Medical Undergraduate Students Using Interpersonal Relations and Social Cognitive Theory: A Cross-Sectional Survey in Chongqing, China. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 1664.

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