We investigated the prevalence and factors associated with hypertension, its treatment, and control using individual-level data from 300,249 respondents aged 20 years and older from the Japanese National Health and Nutrition Survey for the period of 1975–2010. We applied multivariate random effects logistic regression to assess associations between the risk factors and the prevalence of hypertension, the proportion of uncontrolled hypertension, and the proportions of respondents seeking treatment and controlling hypertension. The trends in the effect of the birth cohort on uncontrolled hypertension were also examined. Having hypertension was associated with being male, older, obese, drinking alcohol, and working in the primary industry and a higher proportion of middle-aged men than women were found being obese and drinking alcohol. Seeking treatment was associated with being older, obese, drinking alcohol, working in a primary industry and exercising. Controlling hypertension was associated with being younger, underweight and exercising. The proportion of individuals with uncontrolled hypertension declined for cohorts born in later years with a steeper decline for women than men. Raising awareness in the hypertensive population, especially among men, could help further reduce the prevalence of hypertension in Japan.
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