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Open AccessArticle

Measuring the Impacts of Water Safety Plans in the Asia-Pacific Region

1
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003, USA
2
The Aquaya Institute, P.O. Box 21862-00505, Nairobi, Kenya
3
The Aquaya Institute, P.O. Box 5502, Santa Cruz, CA 95063, USA
4
World Health Organization, 1211 Geneva, Switzerland
5
World Health Organization, Regional Office for South East Asia, New Delhi 110002, India
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(6), 1223; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15061223
Received: 24 April 2018 / Revised: 28 May 2018 / Accepted: 7 June 2018 / Published: 10 June 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Drinking Water Quality and Human Health)
This study investigated the effectiveness of Water Safety Plans (WSP) implemented in 99 water supply systems across 12 countries in the Asia-Pacific region. An impact assessment methodology including 36 indicators was developed based on a conceptual framework proposed by the Center for Disease Control (CDC) and before/after data were collected between November 2014 and June 2016. WSPs were associated with infrastructure improvements at the vast majority (82) of participating sites and to increased financial support at 37 sites. In addition, significant changes were observed in operations and management practices, number of water safety-related meetings, unaccounted-for water, water quality testing activities, and monitoring of consumer satisfaction. However, the study also revealed challenges in the implementation of WSPs, including financial constraints and insufficient capacity. Finally, this study provided an opportunity to test the impact assessment methodology itself, and a series of recommendations are made to improve the approach (indicators, study design, data collection methods) for evaluating WSPs. View Full-Text
Keywords: water safety plans; drinking water quality; risk management; impact assessment; Asia-Pacific region water safety plans; drinking water quality; risk management; impact assessment; Asia-Pacific region
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kumpel, E.; Delaire, C.; Peletz, R.; Kisiangani, J.; Rinehold, A.; De France, J.; Sutherland, D.; Khush, R. Measuring the Impacts of Water Safety Plans in the Asia-Pacific Region. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 1223.

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