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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(6), 1110; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15061110

Interactions of Genes and Sodium Intake on the Development of Hypertension: A Cohort-Based Case-Control Study

1
College of Human Science and Social Innovation, HungKuang University, No. 1018, Sec. 6, Taiwan Boulevard, Shalu District, Taichung 43302, Taiwan
2
Department of Plant Pathology, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 402 Taiwan
3
Department of Occupational Safety and Heath, College of Public Health, China Medical University, No 91 Hsueh-Shih Rd, Taichung 40402, Taiwan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 May 2018 / Revised: 17 May 2018 / Accepted: 24 May 2018 / Published: 30 May 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Health Behavior, Chronic Disease and Health Promotion)
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Abstract

There have been few studies investigating interactions of G-protein beta3 subunit (GNB3) C825T (rs5443) and dietary sodium intake on the risk of hypertension, i.e., BP salt sensitivity. The study aims to evaluate joint effects of GNB3 polymorphisms and sodium consumption on the development of hypertension. A cohort-based case-control study was conducted in 2014. There are 233 participants with newly diagnosed hypertension in the case group and 699 participants in the gender-matched control group. The primary outcome is the development of hypertension over a 10-year period. The determinants of hypertension were three genotypes of SNP in GNB3 (TT; CT; and CC) and two dietary salt categories on the basis of the level of sodium consumption representing high (>4800 mg/day) and low-sodium (<2400 mg/day) diets. The development of hypertension increased with participants carrying TT genotype and high-sodium diets comparing with those carrying TC or CC genotype with low-sodium diets (adjusted OR 3.23, 95% CI 1.52–6.83) (Rothman synergy index = 3.79). The study suggests that GNB3 C825T polymorphism may influence the response of the renin-angiotensin system to high-sodium diet. It implies that GNB3 can be served as an easy, inexpensive, and early genetic marker of salt sensitivity to blood pressure. Salt-sensitive individuals should pay more attention to salt intake to reduce cardiovascular morbidity or mortality. View Full-Text
Keywords: G-protein beta3 subunit; sodium; hypertension; gene-environment interaction; modifier gene; cohort-based case-control studies G-protein beta3 subunit; sodium; hypertension; gene-environment interaction; modifier gene; cohort-based case-control studies
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Chen, M.-L.; Huang, T.-P.; Chen, T.-W.; Chan, H.-H.; Hwang, B.-F. Interactions of Genes and Sodium Intake on the Development of Hypertension: A Cohort-Based Case-Control Study. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 1110.

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