Next Article in Journal
Effect of a Conditional Cash Transfer Program on Nutritional Knowledge and Food Practices among Caregivers of 3–5-Year-Old Left-Behind Children in the Rural Hunan Province
Next Article in Special Issue
The Relationship between Alcohol Drinking Patterns and Sleep Duration among Black and White Men and Women in the United States
Previous Article in Journal
Combining Community Engagement and Scientific Approaches in Next-Generation Monitor Siting: The Case of the Imperial County Community Air Network
Previous Article in Special Issue
The Cost of Inadequate Sleep among On-Call Workers in Australia: A Workplace Perspective
Article Menu
Issue 3 (March) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(3), 524; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15030524

The Acute Effects of Intermittent Light Exposure in the Evening on Alertness and Subsequent Sleep Architecture

1
School of Psychology, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631, China
2
Department of Psychology, National Chengchi University, Taipei 11605, Taiwan
3
Center for Studies of Psychological Application, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Mental Health and Cognitive Science, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631, China
4
The Research Center for Mind, Brain and Learning, National Chengchi University, Taipei 11605, Taiwan
5
National Center for International Research on Green Optoelectronics, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006, China
6
Shenzhen Guohua Optoelectronics Tech. Co., Ltd., Shenzhen 518110, China
The authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 22 January 2018 / Revised: 28 February 2018 / Accepted: 13 March 2018 / Published: 15 March 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sleep Health)
Full-Text   |   PDF [1492 KB, uploaded 15 March 2018]   |  

Abstract

Exposure to bright light is typically intermittent in our daily life. However, the acute effects of intermittent light on alertness and sleep have seldom been explored. To investigate this issue, we employed within-subject design and compared the effects of three light conditions: intermittent bright light (30-min pulse of blue-enriched bright light (~1000 lux, ~6000 K) alternating with 30-min dim normal light (~5 lux, ~3600 K) three times); continuous bright light; and continuous dim light on subjective and objective alertness and subsequent sleep structure. Each light exposure was conducted during the three hours before bedtime. Fifteen healthy volunteers (20 ± 3.4 years; seven males) were scheduled to stay in the sleep laboratory for four separated nights (one for adaptation and the others for the light exposures) with a period of at least one week between nights. The results showed that when compared with dim light, both intermittent light and continuous bright light significantly increased subjective alertness and decreased sleep efficiency (SE) and total sleep time (TST). Intermittent light significantly increased objective alertness than dim light did during the second half of the light-exposure period. Our results suggested that intermittent light was as effective as continuous bright light in their acute effects in enhancing subjective and objective alertness and in negatively impacting subsequent sleep. View Full-Text
Keywords: acute effects; intermittent light; continuous light; dim light; alertness; sleep structure acute effects; intermittent light; continuous light; dim light; alertness; sleep structure
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Yang, M.; Ma, N.; Zhu, Y.; Su, Y.-C.; Chen, Q.; Hsiao, F.-C.; Ji, Y.; Yang, C.-M.; Zhou, G. The Acute Effects of Intermittent Light Exposure in the Evening on Alertness and Subsequent Sleep Architecture. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 524.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top