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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(10), 2139; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15102139

Collective Efficacy: Development and Validation of a Measurement Scale for Use in Public Health and Development Programmes

1
Department of Disease Control, Faculty of Infectious & Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London WC1E 7HT, UK
2
Department of Environmental Health, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
3
Emory Ethiopia, Bahir Dar, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
4
Department of Behavioral Sciences and Health Education, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
5
College of Nursing, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR 72205, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 7 September 2018 / Revised: 24 September 2018 / Accepted: 26 September 2018 / Published: 28 September 2018
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Abstract

Impact evaluations of water, sanitation, and hygiene interventions have demonstrated lower than expected health gains, in some cases due to low uptake and sustained adoption of interventions at a community level. These findings represent common challenges for public health and development programmes relying on collective action. One possible explanation may be low collective efficacy (CE)—perceptions regarding a group’s ability to execute actions related to a common goal. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a metric to assess factors related to CE. We conducted this research within a cluster-randomised sanitation and hygiene trial in Amhara, Ethiopia. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were carried out to examine underlying structures of CE for men and women in rural Ethiopia. We produced three CE scales: one each for men and women that allow for examinations of gender-specific mechanisms through which CE operates, and one 26-item CE scale that can be used across genders. All scales demonstrated high construct validity. CE factor scores were significantly higher for men than women, even among household-level male-female dyads. These CE scales will allow implementers to better design and target community-level interventions, and examine the role of CE in the effectiveness of community-based programming. View Full-Text
Keywords: collective efficacy; WASH; behaviour change; gender; behavioural control; collective action; cooperative behaviour; community-based interventions; factor analysis collective efficacy; WASH; behaviour change; gender; behavioural control; collective action; cooperative behaviour; community-based interventions; factor analysis
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Delea, M.G.; Sclar, G.D.; Woreta, M.; Haardörfer, R.; Nagel, C.L.; Caruso, B.A.; Dreibelbis, R.; Gobezayehu, A.G.; Clasen, T.F.; Freeman, M.C. Collective Efficacy: Development and Validation of a Measurement Scale for Use in Public Health and Development Programmes. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 2139.

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