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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(8), 943; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14080943

Further Evidence of a Specific Psychopathology of Addiction. Differentiation from Other Psychiatric Psychopathological Dimensions (Such as Obesity)

1
Department of Psychiatry, North-Western Tuscany Region Local Health Unit, Versilia Zone, 55049 Viareggio, Italy
2
AU-CNS, Association for the Application of Neuroscientific Knowledge to Social Aims, Pietrasanta, 55045 Lucca, Italy
3
Department of Psychology, International Telematic University Uninettuno, 00186 Rome, Italy
4
Department of Clinical and Dynamic Psychology, Faculty of Medicine and Psychology, Sapienza University of Rome, 00185 Rome, Italy
5
School of Psychiatry, University of Pisa, 56100 Pisa, Italy
6
Department of Psychiatry, North-Western Tuscany Region Local Health Unit, Apuan Zone, 54100 Massa, Italy
7
Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Section of Psychiatry, University of Pisa, 56100 Pisa, Italy
8
G. De Lisio Institute of Behavioral Sciences, 56100 Pisa, Italy
9
Vincent P. Dole Dual Diagnosis Unit, Department of Specialty Medicine, Santa Chiara University Hospital, University of Pisa, 56100 Pisa, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 May 2017 / Revised: 11 June 2017 / Accepted: 14 August 2017 / Published: 21 August 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Global Health)
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Abstract

Introduction: In this study, we used a symptomatology checklist (SCL-90) to substantiate the hypothesis that Substance Use Disorder (SUD) has its own five-dimensional psychopathology. The aim of the present study was to test whether this psychopathology can be differentiated from other psychiatric psychopathological dimensions (such as obesity). Methods: The severity and frequency of each of the five dimensions were investigated, at univariate and multivariate levels, by comparing 972 Heroin Use Disorder (HUD) patients (83.5% male, mean age 30.12 ± 6.6, range: 16–59) and 106 obese individuals (50.0% male, mean age 37.59 ± 7.6, range: 24–52). The correlations between the Body Mass Index (BMI) of obese individuals with these psychopathological dimensions were also studied. Results: Obese individuals showed higher SCL-90 total scores, global severity index scores, number of items rated positively, and positive symptoms distress index scores than HUD patients. The severity of all psychopathological dimensions was significantly higher in obese individuals. Discriminant analysis showed that Panic-Anxiety and Violence-Suicide severity were more frequent in obese patients, sufficiently so to allow differentiation between HUD (lower severity) and obese individuals (greater severity). At the reclassification level, 70.8% of obese individuals in the sample were reclassified as HUD patients. Psychopathological subtypes characterized by Panic-Anxiety and Violence-Suicide typology were more frequent in obese patients and sufficiently so as to discriminate between groups. Of obese patients, 47.2% were reclassified as HUD patients. The severity of the Worthlessness-Being Trapped dimension was sufficient to predict the BMI of obese individuals. Conclusions: Our results suggest that the five-factor psychopathology found in HUD can discriminate between HUD and obese patients, but that there is an area of overlap between the forms of psychopathology found in SUD and those found in obese patients. View Full-Text
Keywords: psychopathological dimensions; psychopathology of addiction; heroin use disorder; substance use disorder; obesity psychopathological dimensions; psychopathology of addiction; heroin use disorder; substance use disorder; obesity
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Maremmani, A.G.; Cerniglia, L.; Cimino, S.; Bacciardi, S.; Rovai, L.; Pallucchini, A.; Spera, V.; Perugi, G.; Maremmani, I. Further Evidence of a Specific Psychopathology of Addiction. Differentiation from Other Psychiatric Psychopathological Dimensions (Such as Obesity). Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14, 943.

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