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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(8), 861; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14080861

Removal Efficiency and Risk Assessment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in a Typical Municipal Wastewater Treatment Facility in Guangzhou, China

1
Key Laboratory of Water Quality Safety and Protection in Pearl River Delta (Ministry of Education), Guangzhou University, Guangzhou 510006, China
2
School of Civil Engineering, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou 510006, China
3
Collaborative Innovation Center of Water Quality Safety and Protection in Pearl River Delta, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou 510006, China
4
Department of Architecture and Civil Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China
5
City University of Hong Kong, Shenzhen Research Institute, Shenzhen 518057, China
6
State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640, China
7
School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou 510006, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Farrukh Ahmad
Received: 19 June 2017 / Revised: 20 July 2017 / Accepted: 28 July 2017 / Published: 1 August 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Science and Engineering)
Full-Text   |   PDF [1509 KB, uploaded 1 August 2017]   |  

Abstract

The loading and removal efficiency of 16 US EPA polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were examined in an inverted A2/O wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) located in an urban area in China. The total PAH concentrations were 554.3 to 723.2 ng/L in the influent and 189.6 to 262.7 ng/L in the effluent. The removal efficiencies of ∑PAHs in the dissolved phase ranged from 63 to 69%, with the highest observed in naphthalene (80% removal). Concentration and distribution of PAHs revealed that the higher molecular weight PAHs became more concentrated with treatment in both the dissolved phase and the dewatered sludge. The sharpest reduction was observed during the pretreatment and the biological phase. Noncarcinogenic risk, carcinogenic risk, and total health risk of PAHs found in the effluent and sewage sludge were also assessed. The effluent BaP toxic equivalent quantities (TEQBaP) were above, or far above, standards in countries. The potential toxicities of PAHs in sewage effluent were approximately 10 to 15 times higher than the acceptable risk level in China. The health risk associated with the sewage sludge also exceeded international recommended levels and was mainly contributed from seven carcinogenic PAHs. Given that WWTP effluent is a major PAH contributor to surface water bodies in China and better reduction efficiencies are achievable, the present study highlights the possibility of utilizing WWTPs for restoring water quality in riverine and coastal regions heavily impacted by PAHs contamination. View Full-Text
Keywords: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; municipal effluents; risk assessment; wastewater treatment; sludge; inverted A2/O process polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; municipal effluents; risk assessment; wastewater treatment; sludge; inverted A2/O process
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Liu, Z.; Li, Q.; Wu, Q.; Kuo, D.T.F.; Chen, S.; Hu, X.; Deng, M.; Zhang, H.; Luo, M. Removal Efficiency and Risk Assessment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in a Typical Municipal Wastewater Treatment Facility in Guangzhou, China. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14, 861.

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