Next Article in Journal
Assessing the Risk of Hg Exposure Associated with Rice Consumption in a Typical City (Suzhou) in Eastern China
Previous Article in Journal
Income-Related Inequalities in Access to Dental Care Services in Japan
Previous Article in Special Issue
Gaseous Elemental Mercury and Total and Leached Mercury in Building Materials from the Former Hg-Mining Area of Abbadia San Salvatore (Central Italy)
Article Menu
Issue 5 (May) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessFeature PaperReview

Mercury in Children: Current State on Exposure through Human Biomonitoring Studies

Department of Environment and Health, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Timothy Dvonch and Nicola Pirrone
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(5), 519;
Received: 23 February 2017 / Revised: 28 April 2017 / Accepted: 8 May 2017 / Published: 12 May 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mercury and Health: Current Perspectives and Future Directions)
PDF [533 KB, uploaded 12 May 2017]


Mercury (Hg) in children has multiple exposure sources and the toxicity of Hg compounds depends on exposure routes, dose, timing of exposure, and developmental stage (be it prenatal or postnatal). Over the last decades, Hg was widely recognized as a threat to the children’s health and there have been acknowledgements at the international level of the need of a global policy intervention—like the Minamata treaty—aimed at reducing or preventing Hg exposure and protecting the child health. National human biomonitoring (HBM) data has demonstrated that low levels of exposure of Hg are still an important health concern for children, which no one country can solve alone. Although independent HBM surveys have provided the basis for the achievements of exposure mitigation in specific contexts, a new paradigm for a coordinated global monitoring of children’s exposure, aimed at a reliable decision-making tool at global level is yet a great challenge for the next future. The objective of the present review is to describe current HBM studies on Hg exposure in children, taking into account the potential pathways of Hg exposure and the actual Hg exposure levels assessed by different biomarkers. View Full-Text
Keywords: mercury exposure; biomarkers; human biomonitoring (HBM); children’s health mercury exposure; biomarkers; human biomonitoring (HBM); children’s health

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Ruggieri, F.; Majorani, C.; Domanico, F.; Alimonti, A. Mercury in Children: Current State on Exposure through Human Biomonitoring Studies. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14, 519.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top