Next Article in Journal
Individual Monitoring and Occupational Dose Record Management in China: History, Current Status and Perspectives
Previous Article in Journal
A Diffusive Gradient-in-Thin-Film Technique for Evaluation of the Bioavailability of Cd in Soil Contaminated with Cd and Pb
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(6), 555;

Identifying Hot-Spots of Metal Contamination in Campus Dust of Xi’an, China

School of Tourism and Environment, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi’an 710062, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Kim Natasha Dirks
Received: 14 April 2016 / Revised: 23 May 2016 / Accepted: 30 May 2016 / Published: 3 June 2016
Full-Text   |   PDF [2354 KB, uploaded 3 June 2016]   |  


The concentrations of heavy metals (As, Ba, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, V, and Zn) in campus dust from kindergartens, elementary schools, middle schools, and universities in the city of Xi’an, China, were determined by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. The pollution levels and hotspots of metals were analyzed using a geoaccumulation index and Local Moran’s I, an indicator of spatial association, respectively. The dust samples from the campuses had metal concentrations higher than background levels, especially for Pb, Zn, Co, Cu, Cr, and Ba. The pollution assessment indicated that the campus dusts were not contaminated with As, Mn, Ni, or V, were moderately or not contaminated with Ba and Cr and were moderately to strongly contaminated with Co, Cu, Pb, and Zn. Local Moran’s I analysis detected the locations of spatial clusters and outliers and indicated that the pollution with these 10 metals occurred in significant high-high spatial clusters, low-high, or even high-low spatial outliers. As, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, V, and Zn had important high-high patterns in the center of Xi’an. The western and southwestern regions of the study area, i.e., areas of old and high-tech industries, have strongly contributed to the Co content in the campus dust. View Full-Text
Keywords: metals; dust; hotspot; spatial cluster; Local Moran’s I metals; dust; hotspot; spatial cluster; Local Moran’s I

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Chen, H.; Lu, X.; Gao, T.; Chang, Y. Identifying Hot-Spots of Metal Contamination in Campus Dust of Xi’an, China. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 555.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top