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Breastfeeding, Bottle Feeding Practices and Malocclusion in the Primary Dentition: A Systematic Review of Cohort Studies

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Department of Pediatric Dentistry and Orthodontics, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG 31270-901, Brazil
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Department of Public Health, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG 31270-901, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Jane Scott and Colin Binns
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(3), 3133-3151; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph120303133
Received: 7 January 2015 / Revised: 4 March 2015 / Accepted: 5 March 2015 / Published: 16 March 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Breastfeeding and Infant Health)
The World Health Organization recommends exclusive breast feeding for at least six months. However, there is no scientific evidence of the benefits of breast feeding for oral health in children under primary dentition. This study aimed to search for scientific evidence regarding the following question: is bottle feeding associated with malocclusion in the primary dentition compared to children that are breastfed? An electronic search was performed in seven databases. The systematic review included 10 cohort studies. It was not possible to conduct meta-analysis; therefore a qualitative analysis was assessed. The majority of studies evaluated feeding habits by means of questionnaires and conducted a single examination. Three studies observed that bottle feeding was significantly associated with overjet and posterior crossbite. Studies reported several cut-off times for breastfeeding (varying from 1 month up to 3 years of age) and several types of malocclusion. Controlling for non-nutritive sucking habits was reported for only half of the studies and this may have led to biased results. The scientific evidence could not confirm a specific type of malocclusion associated with the feeding habits or an adequate time of breastfeeding to benefit the children against malocclusion. Further cohort studies are needed to confirm this evidence. View Full-Text
Keywords: malocclusion; breast feeding; bottle feeding; systematic review malocclusion; breast feeding; bottle feeding; systematic review
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hermont, A.P.; Martins, C.C.; Zina, L.G.; Auad, S.M.; Paiva, S.M.; Pordeus, I.A. Breastfeeding, Bottle Feeding Practices and Malocclusion in the Primary Dentition: A Systematic Review of Cohort Studies. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12, 3133-3151.

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