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Importance of Wetlands Management for West Nile Virus Circulation Risk, Camargue, Southern France

INRA, UR346 Epidémiologie Animale, Saint Genès Champanelle F-63122, France
INRA, UMR1225, IHAP, Université de Toulouse, INP-ENVT, Toulouse F-31076, France
Centre de Recherche pour la Conservation des Zones Humides Méditerranéennes, Fondation Tour du Valat, Arles F-13200, France
UFR Sciences, Aix-Marseille Université, Marseille F-13003, France
CIRAD, UPR Animal et Gestion Intégrée des Risques (AGIRs), Montpellier F-34398, France
CIRAD, UMR Territoires Environnement Télédétection et Information Spatiale (TETIS), Montpellier F-34398, France
ANSES, Maisons-Alfort Laboratory for Animal Health, UMR1161 Virologie, INRA, ANSES, ENVA, Maisons-Alfort F-94703, France
Equine Department, Vetagrosup, Marcy L'Etoile F-69280, France
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(8), 7740-7754;
Received: 12 June 2014 / Revised: 24 July 2014 / Accepted: 28 July 2014 / Published: 4 August 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Determinants of Infectious Disease Transmission)
PDF [480 KB, uploaded 4 August 2014]


To assess environmental and horse-level risk factors associated with West Nile Virus (WNV) circulation in Camargue, Southern France, a serosurvey was conducted on non-vaccinated horses (n = 1159 from 134 stables) in 2007 and 2008. Fifteen Landsat images were examined to quantify areas with open water and flooded vegetation around sampled horses. Mean percentages of areas of open water and flooded vegetation, as well as variations in these percentages between 3 periods (November to February = NOT, March to July = END and August to October = EPI), were calculated for buffers of 2 km radius around the stables. Results of the final logistic regression showed that the risk of WNV seropositivity in horses decreased with their date of acquisition and age. Results also demonstrated the significant role of environmental variables. Horse serological status was associated with variations of open water areas between the NOT (November to February) and END (March to July) periods, as well as between END and EPI (August to October). WNV spillover was found more intense in areas where water level decreased strongly from winter to spring and from spring to summer. View Full-Text
Keywords: West Nile; France; wetlands; spatial analysis; risk factor; vector-borne diseases; remote sensing West Nile; France; wetlands; spatial analysis; risk factor; vector-borne diseases; remote sensing

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Pradier, S.; Sandoz, A.; Paul, M.C.; Lefebvre, G.; Tran, A.; Maingault, J.; Lecollinet, S.; Leblond, A. Importance of Wetlands Management for West Nile Virus Circulation Risk, Camargue, Southern France. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11, 7740-7754.

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