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Effects of Air Pollution on the Risk of Congenital Anomalies: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

School of Public Health, EHESP, Sorbonne-Paris-Cité, Rennes, Cedex 35043, France
Inserm—Unit Research 1085, Research Institute of Environmental and Occupational Health, Rennes, Cedex 35043, France
Lorraine University Medical School, Nancy, Cedex 54052, France
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(8), 7642-7668;
Received: 26 May 2014 / Revised: 16 July 2014 / Accepted: 16 July 2014 / Published: 31 July 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Maternal and Child Health)
Congenital anomalies are the main causes of preterm and neonatal mortality and morbidity. We investigated the association between congenital anomalies and mothers’ exposure to air pollution during pregnancy by combining risk estimates for a variety of air pollutants (SO2, NO2, PM10, PM2.5, CO and O3) and anomaly defect outcomes. Seventeen articles were included in the systematic review and thirteen studies were taken into account in the meta-analysis. Combined estimated were calculated separately according to whether the exposure metric was continuous or categorical. Only one significant combination was; NO2 concentrations were significantly associated with coarctation of the aorta (OR = 1.20 per 10 ppb, 95% CI, (1.02, 1.41)). This finding could stem from strong heterogeneity in study designs. Improved exposure assessment methods, in particular more accurate spatial measurements or modeling, standardized definition of cases and of better control of confounders are highly recommended for future congenital anomalies research in this area. View Full-Text
Keywords: meta-analysis; congenital anomalies; exposure; air pollution meta-analysis; congenital anomalies; exposure; air pollution
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Chen, E.K.-C.; Zmirou-Navier, D.; Padilla, C.; Deguen, S. Effects of Air Pollution on the Risk of Congenital Anomalies: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11, 7642-7668.

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