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Article

Structure Analysis of Aerobic Granule from a Sequencing Batch Reactor for Organic Matter and Ammonia Nitrogen Removal

College of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310014, China
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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(3), 2427-2436; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph110302427
Received: 3 January 2014 / Revised: 5 February 2014 / Accepted: 11 February 2014 / Published: 26 February 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrient Removal and Recovery)
Aerobic granules were cultivated in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR). COD and ammonia nitrogen removal rate were 94% and 99%, respectively. The diameter, settling velocity and SVI10 of granules ranged from 2 to 5 mm, 80 to 110 m/h and about 40 mL/g, respectively. Freezing microtome images, DO concentration profiles by microelectrode, distribution of bacteria and EPS by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) show that the aerobic granules have a three-layer structure. Each layer has different thickness, character, bacteria, and DO transfer rate. A hypothesis for granule structure is proposed: the first layer, the surface of the granule, is composed mostly of heterotrophic organisms for organic matter removal, with a thickness range from 150 to 350 μm; the second layer, mostly composed of autotrophic organisms for ammonia nitrogen removal, with a thickness range from 250 to 450 μm; the third layer, located in the core of the granule, has mostly an inorganic composition and contains pores and channels. View Full-Text
Keywords: aerobic granules; structure; freezing microtome; dissolved oxygen; microelectrode; CLSM aerobic granules; structure; freezing microtome; dissolved oxygen; microelectrode; CLSM
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MDPI and ACS Style

Li, J.; Cai, A.; Wang, D.; Chen, C.; Ni, Y. Structure Analysis of Aerobic Granule from a Sequencing Batch Reactor for Organic Matter and Ammonia Nitrogen Removal. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11, 2427-2436. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph110302427

AMA Style

Li J, Cai A, Wang D, Chen C, Ni Y. Structure Analysis of Aerobic Granule from a Sequencing Batch Reactor for Organic Matter and Ammonia Nitrogen Removal. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2014; 11(3):2427-2436. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph110302427

Chicago/Turabian Style

Li, Jun, Ang Cai, Danjun Wang, Chao Chen, and Yongjiong Ni. 2014. "Structure Analysis of Aerobic Granule from a Sequencing Batch Reactor for Organic Matter and Ammonia Nitrogen Removal" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 11, no. 3: 2427-2436. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph110302427

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