Next Article in Journal
Sun Protection Preferences and Behaviors among Young Adult Males during Maximum Ultraviolet Radiation Exposure Activities
Next Article in Special Issue
Environmental Drivers of West Nile Fever Epidemiology in Europe and Western Asia—A Review
Previous Article in Journal
Linking Climate to Incidence of Zoonotic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (L. major) in Pre-Saharan North Africa
Previous Article in Special Issue
Use of Competition ELISA for Monitoring of West Nile Virus Infections in Horses in Germany
Open AccessArticle

Using Undergraduate Researchers to Build Vector and West Nile Virus Surveillance Capacity

1
Department of Natural Science, Carroll College, 1601 N. Benton Ave., Helena, MT 59625, USA
2
Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717, USA
3
Aaniiih Nakoda College, Harlem, MT 59526, USA
4
Little Big Horn College, Crow Agency, MT 59022, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10(8), 3192-3202; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph10083192
Received: 28 May 2013 / Revised: 23 July 2013 / Accepted: 25 July 2013 / Published: 31 July 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Epidemiology of West Nile Virus)
Vector surveillance for infectious diseases is labor intensive and constantly threatened by budget decisions. We report on outcomes of an undergraduate research experience designed to build surveillance capacity for West Nile Virus (WNV) in Montana (USA). Students maintained weekly trapping stations for mosquitoes and implemented assays to test for WNV in pools of Culex tarsalis. Test results were verified in a partnership with the state health laboratory and disseminated to the ArboNET Surveillance System. Combined with prior surveillance data, Cx. tarsalis accounted for 12% of mosquitoes with a mean capture rate of 74 (±SD = 118) Cx. tarsalis females per trap and a minimum infection rate of 0.3 infected mosquitoes per 1000 individuals. However, capture and infection rates varied greatly across years and locations. Infection rate, but not capture rate, was positively associated with the number of WNV human cases (Spearman’s rho = 0.94, p < 0.001). In most years, detection of the first positive mosquito pool occurred at least a week prior to the first reported human case. We suggest that undergraduate research can increase vector surveillance capacity while providing effective learning opportunities for students. View Full-Text
Keywords: West Nile Virus; vector surveillance; Culex tarsalis; arthropod vectors; infectious disease West Nile Virus; vector surveillance; Culex tarsalis; arthropod vectors; infectious disease
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Hokit, G.; Alvey, S.; Geiger, J.M.O.; Johnson, G.D.; Rolston, M.G.; Kinsey, D.T.; Bear, N.T. Using Undergraduate Researchers to Build Vector and West Nile Virus Surveillance Capacity. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10, 3192-3202.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Only visits after 24 November 2015 are recorded.
Back to TopTop