Next Article in Journal
Geoditin A Induces Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis on Human Colon HT29 Cells
Next Article in Special Issue
Primary Screening of the Bioactivity of Brackishwater Cyanobacteria: Toxicity of Crude Extracts to Artemia salina Larvae and Paracentrotus lividus Embryos
Previous Article in Journal
Inhibitory Activity of Marine Sponge-Derived Natural Products against Parasitic Protozoa
Previous Article in Special Issue
The Influence of Bioactive Oxylipins from Marine Diatoms on Invertebrate Reproduction and Development
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Mar. Drugs 2010, 8(1), 59-79;

Effects of Marine Toxins on the Reproduction and Early Stages Development of Aquatic Organisms

Faculty of Sciences, Porto University, Rua do Campo Alegre, 4169-007 Porto, Portugal
Marine and Environmental Research Center, CIIMAR, CIMAR-LA, Rua dos Bragas, 289, 4050-123 Porto, Portugal
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 December 2009 / Revised: 4 January 2010 / Accepted: 18 January 2010 / Published: 19 January 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Bioactive Compounds Acting on Animal Reproduction)
Full-Text   |   PDF [258 KB, uploaded 24 February 2015]


Marine organisms, and specially phytoplankton species, are able to produce a diverse array of toxic compounds that are not yet fully understood in terms of their main targets and biological function. Toxins such as saxitoxins, tetrodotoxin, palytoxin, nodularin, okadaic acid, domoic acid, may be produced in large amounts by dinoflagellates, cyanobacteria, bacteria and diatoms and accumulate in vectors that transfer the toxin along food chains. These may affect top predator organisms, including human populations, leading in some cases to death. Nevertheless, these toxins may also affect the reproduction of aquatic organisms that may be in contact with the toxins, either by decreasing the amount or quality of gametes or by affecting embryonic development. Adults of some species may be insensitive to toxins but early stages are more prone to intoxication because they lack effective enzymatic systems to detoxify the toxins and are more exposed to the toxins due to a higher metabolic growth rate. In this paper we review the current knowledge on the effects of some of the most common marine toxins on the reproduction and development of early stages of some organisms. View Full-Text
Keywords: marine toxins; reproduction; larval development; early stages marine toxins; reproduction; larval development; early stages
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Vasconcelos, V.; Azevedo, J.; Silva, M.; Ramos, V. Effects of Marine Toxins on the Reproduction and Early Stages Development of Aquatic Organisms. Mar. Drugs 2010, 8, 59-79.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Mar. Drugs EISSN 1660-3397 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top