Next Article in Journal
Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Marine Drugs in 2018
Previous Article in Journal
Clerodane Diterpenes from the Marine Sponge Raspailia bouryesnaultae Collected in South Brazil
Open AccessArticle

Potent Cytotoxic Analogs of Amphidinolides from the Atlantic Octocoral Stragulum bicolor

Institute of Biomolecular Chemistry, National Research Council (CNR), 80078 Pozzuoli, Naples, Italy
Departamento de Química Orgânica e Inorgânica, Universidade Federal do Ceará, Fortaleza 60020-181, CE, Brazil
Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn, Villa Comunale, 80121 Napoli, Italy
Departamento de Farmacologia, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo 11030-400, SP, Brazil
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors have equally contributed to this work.
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(1), 58;
Received: 7 December 2018 / Revised: 9 January 2019 / Accepted: 12 January 2019 / Published: 16 January 2019
PDF [965 KB, uploaded 16 January 2019]


Amphidinolides are cytotoxic macrolides produced by symbiotic unicellular microalgae of the genus Amphidinium. Here we describe the identification of four related molecules belonging to this macrolide family isolated from the invertebrate Stragulum bicolor. The new molecules, named amphidinolide PX1-PX3 and stragulin A (14), show an unprecedented carbon skeleton whose complete stereochemistry has been determined by spectroscopic and computational methods. Differences in the structures of these molecules modulate their biological activity in a panel of tumor cell lines, but the opened derivative stragulin (4) shows a very potent and specific cytotoxic activity (IC50 0.18 µM) against the aggressive human melanoma cell A2058. View Full-Text
Keywords: amphidinolides; Stragulum bicolor; cytotoxic macrolides; stereochemistry amphidinolides; Stragulum bicolor; cytotoxic macrolides; stereochemistry

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material


Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Nuzzo, G.; Gomes, B.A.; Gallo, C.; Amodeo, P.; Sansone, C.; Pessoa, O.D.L.; Manzo, E.; Vitale, R.M.; Ianora, A.; Santos, E.A.; Costa-Lotufo, L.V.; Fontana, A. Potent Cytotoxic Analogs of Amphidinolides from the Atlantic Octocoral Stragulum bicolor. Mar. Drugs 2019, 17, 58.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Mar. Drugs EISSN 1660-3397 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top