Next Article in Journal
Monoclonal Antibodies for Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE)
Next Article in Special Issue
Home and Office Blood Pressure Control among Treated Hypertensive Patients in Japan: Findings from the Japan Home versus Office Blood Pressure Measurement Evaluation (J-HOME) Study
Previous Article in Journal / Special Issue
Quercetin: A Treatment for Hypertension?—A Review of Efficacy and Mechanisms
Open AccessReview

Antihypertensive Peptides from Milk Proteins

Institute of Biomedicine, Pharmacology, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 63, 00014, University of Helsinki, Finland
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Pharmaceuticals 2010, 3(1), 251-272;
Received: 23 December 2009 / Revised: 14 January 2010 / Accepted: 18 January 2010 / Published: 19 January 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antihypertensive Drugs)
Dietary proteins possess a wide range of nutritional and functional properties. They are used as a source of energy and amino acids, which are needed for growth and development. Many dietary proteins, especially milk proteins, contain physiologically active peptides encrypted in the protein sequence. These peptides may be released during gastrointestinal digestion or food processing and once liberated, cause different physiological functions. Milk-derived bioactive peptides are shown to have antihypertensive, antimicrobial, immunomodulatory, antioxidative and mineral-binding properties. During the fermentation of milk with certain lactobacilli, two interesting tripeptides Ile-Pro-Pro and Val-Pro-Pro are released from casein to the final product. These lactotripeptides have attenuated the development of hypertension in several animal models and lowered blood pressure in clinical studies. They inhibit ACE in vitro at micromolar concentrations, protect endothelial function in vitro and reduce arterial stiffness in humans. Thus, milk as a traditional food product can after certain processing serve as a functional food and carry specific health-promoting effects, providing an option to control blood pressure. View Full-Text
Keywords: hypertension; casein; bioactive peptides; lactotripeptides; Ile-Pro-Pro hypertension; casein; bioactive peptides; lactotripeptides; Ile-Pro-Pro
MDPI and ACS Style

Jäkälä, P.; Vapaatalo, H. Antihypertensive Peptides from Milk Proteins. Pharmaceuticals 2010, 3, 251-272.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Only visits after 24 November 2015 are recorded.
Back to TopTop