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Sensors 2007, 7(5), 650-675;

Improvement of Flame-made ZnO Nanoparticulate Thick Film Morphology for Ethanol Sensing

Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200, Thailand
Nanoscience Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand 50200
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 19 April 2007 / Accepted: 11 May 2007 / Published: 15 May 2007
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ZnO nanoparticles were produced by flame spray pyrolysis using zinc naphthenate as a precursor dissolved in toluene/acetonitrile (80/20 vol%). The particles properties were analyzed by XRD, BET. The ZnO particle size and morphology was observed by SEM and HR-TEM revealing spheroidal, hexagonal, and rod-like morphologies. The crystallite sizes of ZnO spheroidal and hexagonal particles ranged from 10-20 nm. ZnO nanorods were ranged from 10-20 nm in width and 20-50 nm in length. Sensing films were produced by mixing the nanoparticles into an organic paste composed of terpineol and ethyl cellulose as a vehicle binder. The paste was doctor-bladed onto Al2O3 substrates interdigitated with Au electrodes. The morphology of the sensing films was analyzed by optical microscopy and SEM analysis. Cracking of the sensing films during annealing process was improved by varying the heating conditions. The gas sensing of ethanol (25-250 ppm) was studied at 400 °C in dry air containing SiC as the fluidized particles. The oxidation of ethanol on the surface of the semiconductor was confirmed by mass spectroscopy (MS). The effect of micro-cracks was quantitatively accounted for as a provider of extra exposed edges. The sensitivity decreased notably with increasing crack of sensing films. It can be observed that crack widths were reduced with decreasing heating rates. Crack-free of thick (5 μm) ZnO films evidently showed higher sensor signal and faster response times (within seconds) than cracked sensor. The sensor signal increased and the response time decreased with increasing ethanol concentration. View Full-Text
Keywords: ZnO; Flame spray pyrolysis; Crack; Ethanol sensor. ZnO; Flame spray pyrolysis; Crack; Ethanol sensor.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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Liewhiran, C.; Phanichphant, S. Improvement of Flame-made ZnO Nanoparticulate Thick Film Morphology for Ethanol Sensing. Sensors 2007, 7, 650-675.

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