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Article

Multi-Unit Serial Polynomial Multiplier to Accelerate NTRU-Based Cryptographic Schemes in IoT Embedded Systems

Instituto de Microelectrónica de Sevilla, IMSE-CNM, CSIC/University of Seville, 41092 Seville, Spain
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Academic Editors: Emmanouil Panaousis and Kaitai Liang
Sensors 2022, 22(5), 2057; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22052057
Received: 27 January 2022 / Revised: 23 February 2022 / Accepted: 4 March 2022 / Published: 7 March 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Cybersecurity for the Internet of Things)
Concern for the security of embedded systems that implement IoT devices has become a crucial issue, as these devices today support an increasing number of applications and services that store and exchange information whose integrity, privacy, and authenticity must be adequately guaranteed. Modern lattice-based cryptographic schemes have proven to be a good alternative, both to face the security threats that arise as a consequence of the development of quantum computing and to allow efficient implementations of cryptographic primitives in resource-limited embedded systems, such as those used in consumer and industrial applications of the IoT. This article describes the hardware implementation of parameterized multi-unit serial polynomial multipliers to speed up time-consuming operations in NTRU-based cryptographic schemes. The flexibility in selecting the design parameters and the interconnection protocol with a general-purpose processor allow them to be applied both to the standardized variants of NTRU and to the new proposals that are being considered in the post-quantum contest currently held by the National Institute of Standards and Technology, as well as to obtain an adequate cost/performance/security-level trade-off for a target application. The designs are provided as AXI4 bus-compliant intellectual property modules that can be easily incorporated into embedded systems developed with the Vivado design tools. The work provides an extensive set of implementation and characterization results in devices of the Xilinx Zynq-7000 and Zynq UltraScale+ families for the different sets of parameters defined in the NTRUEncrypt standard. It also includes details of their plug and play inclusion as hardware accelerators in the C implementation of this public-key encryption scheme codified in the LibNTRU library, showing that acceleration factors of up to 3.1 are achieved when compared to pure software implementations running on the processing systems included in the programmable devices. View Full-Text
Keywords: IoT embedded systems; hardware security; postquantum cryptography; public-key encryption scheme; HW/SW codesign techniques; programmable systems-on-chip IoT embedded systems; hardware security; postquantum cryptography; public-key encryption scheme; HW/SW codesign techniques; programmable systems-on-chip
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sánchez-Solano, S.; Camacho-Ruiz, E.; Martínez-Rodríguez, M.C.; Brox, P. Multi-Unit Serial Polynomial Multiplier to Accelerate NTRU-Based Cryptographic Schemes in IoT Embedded Systems. Sensors 2022, 22, 2057. https://doi.org/10.3390/s22052057

AMA Style

Sánchez-Solano S, Camacho-Ruiz E, Martínez-Rodríguez MC, Brox P. Multi-Unit Serial Polynomial Multiplier to Accelerate NTRU-Based Cryptographic Schemes in IoT Embedded Systems. Sensors. 2022; 22(5):2057. https://doi.org/10.3390/s22052057

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sánchez-Solano, Santiago, Eros Camacho-Ruiz, Macarena C. Martínez-Rodríguez, and Piedad Brox. 2022. "Multi-Unit Serial Polynomial Multiplier to Accelerate NTRU-Based Cryptographic Schemes in IoT Embedded Systems" Sensors 22, no. 5: 2057. https://doi.org/10.3390/s22052057

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