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Article

Drift-Free 3D Orientation and Displacement Estimation for Quasi-Cyclical Movements Using One Inertial Measurement Unit: Application to Running

1
Department of Biomedical Signals and Systems, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Computer Science (EEMCS), University of Twente, 7522 NB Enschede, The Netherlands
2
Roessingh Research and Development, 7522 AH Enschede, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Mark Robinson and Jacqueline Alderson
Sensors 2022, 22(3), 956; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22030956
Received: 13 December 2021 / Revised: 14 January 2022 / Accepted: 19 January 2022 / Published: 26 January 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors in Sports Biomechanics)
A Drift-Free 3D Orientation and Displacement estimation method (DFOD) based on a single inertial measurement unit (IMU) is proposed and validated. Typically, body segment orientation and displacement methods rely on a constant- or zero-velocity point to correct for drift. Therefore, they are not easily applicable to more proximal segments than the foot. DFOD uses an alternative single sensor drift reduction strategy based on the quasi-cyclical nature of many human movements. DFOD assumes that the quasi-cyclical movement occurs in a quasi-2D plane and with an approximately constant cycle average velocity. DFOD is independent of a constant- or zero-velocity point, a biomechanical model, Kalman filtering or a magnetometer. DFOD reduces orientation drift by assuming a cyclical movement, and by defining a functional coordinate system with two functional axes. These axes are based on the mean acceleration and rotation axes over multiple complete gait cycles. Using this drift-free orientation estimate, the displacement of the sensor is computed by again assuming a cyclical movement. Drift in displacement is reduced by subtracting the mean value over five gait cycle from the free acceleration, velocity, and displacement. Estimated 3D sensor orientation and displacement for an IMU on the lower leg were validated with an optical motion capture system (OMCS) in four runners during constant velocity treadmill running. Root mean square errors for sensor orientation differences between DFOD and OMCS were 3.1 ± 0.4° (sagittal plane), 5.3 ± 1.1° (frontal plane), and 5.0 ± 2.1° (transversal plane). Sensor displacement differences had a root mean square error of 1.6 ± 0.2 cm (forward axis), 1.7 ± 0.6 cm (mediolateral axis), and 1.6 ± 0.2 cm (vertical axis). Hence, DFOD is a promising 3D drift-free orientation and displacement estimation method based on a single IMU in quasi-cyclical movements with many advantages over current methods. View Full-Text
Keywords: inertial measurement unit; drift-free; orientation; displacement; cyclical; running inertial measurement unit; drift-free; orientation; displacement; cyclical; running
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    Doi: https://doi.org/10.4121/18394190
MDPI and ACS Style

Zandbergen, M.A.; Reenalda, J.; van Middelaar, R.P.; Ferla, R.I.; Buurke, J.H.; Veltink, P.H. Drift-Free 3D Orientation and Displacement Estimation for Quasi-Cyclical Movements Using One Inertial Measurement Unit: Application to Running. Sensors 2022, 22, 956. https://doi.org/10.3390/s22030956

AMA Style

Zandbergen MA, Reenalda J, van Middelaar RP, Ferla RI, Buurke JH, Veltink PH. Drift-Free 3D Orientation and Displacement Estimation for Quasi-Cyclical Movements Using One Inertial Measurement Unit: Application to Running. Sensors. 2022; 22(3):956. https://doi.org/10.3390/s22030956

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zandbergen, Marit A., Jasper Reenalda, Robbert P. van Middelaar, Romano I. Ferla, Jaap H. Buurke, and Peter H. Veltink. 2022. "Drift-Free 3D Orientation and Displacement Estimation for Quasi-Cyclical Movements Using One Inertial Measurement Unit: Application to Running" Sensors 22, no. 3: 956. https://doi.org/10.3390/s22030956

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