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Article

Wearable Ball-Impact Piezoelectric Multi-Converters for Low-Frequency Energy Harvesting from Human Motion

1
Department of Information Engineering, University of Brescia, 25123 Brescia, Italy
2
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Politecnico di Milano, 20133 Milano, Italy
3
Huawei Technologies Oy, 00180 Helsinki, Finland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Giorgio Pennazza and Anna Sabatini
Sensors 2022, 22(3), 772; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22030772
Received: 23 December 2021 / Revised: 9 January 2022 / Accepted: 14 January 2022 / Published: 20 January 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Sensor Systems for Remote Health Monitoring)
Multi-converter piezoelectric harvesters based on mono-axial and bi-axial configurations are proposed. The harvesters exploit two and four piezoelectric converters (PCs) and adopt an impinging spherical steel ball to harvest electrical energy from human motion. When the harvester undergoes a shake, a tilt, or a combination of the two, the ball hits one PC, inducing an impact-based frequency-up conversion. Prototypes of the harvesters have been designed, fabricated, fastened to the wrist of a person by means of a wristband and watchband, and experimentally tested for different motion levels. The PCs of the harvesters have been fed to passive diode-based voltage-doubler rectifiers connected in parallel to a storage capacitor, Cs = 220 nF. By employing the mono-axial harvester, after 8.5 s of consecutive impacts induced by rotations of the wrist, a voltage vcs(t) of 40.2 V across the capacitor was obtained, which corresponded to a stored energy of 178 μJ. By employing the bi-axial harvester, the peak instantaneous power provided by the PCs to an optimal resistive load was 1.58 mW, with an average power of 9.65 μW over 0.7 s. The proposed harvesters are suitable to scavenge electrical energy from low-frequency nonperiodical mechanical movements, such as human motion. View Full-Text
Keywords: energy harvesting; piezoelectric converter; wearable; wrist-worn; multi-degree-of-freedom converters; mono-axial harvester; bi-axial harvester; ball-impact; frequency-up conversion technique energy harvesting; piezoelectric converter; wearable; wrist-worn; multi-degree-of-freedom converters; mono-axial harvester; bi-axial harvester; ball-impact; frequency-up conversion technique
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MDPI and ACS Style

Nastro, A.; Pienazza, N.; Baù, M.; Aceti, P.; Rouvala, M.; Ardito, R.; Ferrari, M.; Corigliano, A.; Ferrari, V. Wearable Ball-Impact Piezoelectric Multi-Converters for Low-Frequency Energy Harvesting from Human Motion. Sensors 2022, 22, 772. https://doi.org/10.3390/s22030772

AMA Style

Nastro A, Pienazza N, Baù M, Aceti P, Rouvala M, Ardito R, Ferrari M, Corigliano A, Ferrari V. Wearable Ball-Impact Piezoelectric Multi-Converters for Low-Frequency Energy Harvesting from Human Motion. Sensors. 2022; 22(3):772. https://doi.org/10.3390/s22030772

Chicago/Turabian Style

Nastro, Alessandro, Nicola Pienazza, Marco Baù, Pietro Aceti, Markku Rouvala, Raffaele Ardito, Marco Ferrari, Alberto Corigliano, and Vittorio Ferrari. 2022. "Wearable Ball-Impact Piezoelectric Multi-Converters for Low-Frequency Energy Harvesting from Human Motion" Sensors 22, no. 3: 772. https://doi.org/10.3390/s22030772

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