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A Simple Low-Cost Electrocardiogram Synchronizer

School of Telecommunications Engineering, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, 08034 Barcelona, Spain
ICREC Research Program, Health Science Research Institute Germans Trias i Pujol, Can Ruti Campus, 08916 Badalona, Spain
CIBERCV, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, 28029 Madrid, Spain
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: James F. Rusling
Sensors 2021, 21(17), 5885;
Received: 6 July 2021 / Revised: 24 August 2021 / Accepted: 28 August 2021 / Published: 1 September 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomedical Sensors-Recent Advances and Future Challenges)
Electrocardiogram (ECG) synchronization is useful to avoid the effects of cardiac motion in medical measurements, and is widely used in standard medical imaging. A number of medical equipment include embedded commercial synchronizers. However, the use of independent synchronization modules is sometimes needed when several non-integrated instruments are used, or in the development of new medical instruments and procedures. We present a simple low-cost ECG synchronizer module based on an Arduino controller board that converts the ECG signal into a transistor-transistor-logic (TTL) one, allowing real-time medical measurements triggered at specific phases of the cardiac cycle. The device and conversion algorithm developed is optimized in vitro using synthetic and human ECG signals, and tested in vivo on three swine specimens. Error rates during the in vivo testing stage remain below the 2% of the cycles in all animals and critical false positives are less than 1%, which is sufficient for most applications. Possible algorithm updates are discussed if its performance needs to be improved. View Full-Text
Keywords: biomedical signals; ECG; bioinstrumentation; synchronization; trigger; medical sensor development biomedical signals; ECG; bioinstrumentation; synchronization; trigger; medical sensor development
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MDPI and ACS Style

Amorós, S.; Gálvez-Montón, C.; Rodríguez-Leor, O.; O’Callaghan, J.M. A Simple Low-Cost Electrocardiogram Synchronizer. Sensors 2021, 21, 5885.

AMA Style

Amorós S, Gálvez-Montón C, Rodríguez-Leor O, O’Callaghan JM. A Simple Low-Cost Electrocardiogram Synchronizer. Sensors. 2021; 21(17):5885.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Amorós, Susana, Carolina Gálvez-Montón, Oriol Rodríguez-Leor, and Juan M. O’Callaghan 2021. "A Simple Low-Cost Electrocardiogram Synchronizer" Sensors 21, no. 17: 5885.

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