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Article

Influence of Dispersed Oil on the Remote Sensing Reflectance—Field Experiment in the Baltic Sea

1
Department of Physics, Gdynia Maritime University, ul. Morska 81-87, 81-125 Gdynia, Poland
2
Department of Marine Physics, Institute of Oceanology of Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Powstańców Warszawy 55, 81-712 Sopot, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Teruhisa Komatsu
Sensors 2021, 21(17), 5733; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21175733
Received: 11 June 2021 / Revised: 31 July 2021 / Accepted: 20 August 2021 / Published: 25 August 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing of Water Quality and Water Environment)
Remote sensing techniques currently used to detect oil spills have not yet demonstrated their applicability to dispersed forms of oil. However, oil droplets dispersed in seawater are known to modify the local optical properties and, consequently, the upwelling light flux. Theoretically possible, passive remote detection of oil droplets was never tested in the offshore conditions. This study presents a field experiment which demonstrates the capability of commercially available sensors to detect significant changes in the remote sensing reflectance Rrs of seawater polluted by six types of dispersed oils (two crude oils, cylinder lubricant, biodiesel, and two marine gear lubricants). The experiment was based on the comparison of the upwelling radiance Lu measured in a transparent tank floating in full immersion in seawater in the Southern Baltic Sea. The tank was first filled with natural seawater and then polluted by dispersed oils in five consecutive concentrations of 1–15 ppm. After addition of dispersed oils, spectra of Rrs noticeably increased and the maximal increase varied from 40% to over three-fold at the highest oil droplet concentration. Moreover, the most affected Rrs band ratios and band differences were analyzed and are discussed in the context of future construction of algorithms for dispersed oil detection. View Full-Text
Keywords: dispersed oil; remote sensing reflectance; oil pollution; water quality; oil detection dispersed oil; remote sensing reflectance; oil pollution; water quality; oil detection
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MDPI and ACS Style

Haule, K.; Toczek, H.; Borzycka, K.; Darecki, M. Influence of Dispersed Oil on the Remote Sensing Reflectance—Field Experiment in the Baltic Sea. Sensors 2021, 21, 5733. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21175733

AMA Style

Haule K, Toczek H, Borzycka K, Darecki M. Influence of Dispersed Oil on the Remote Sensing Reflectance—Field Experiment in the Baltic Sea. Sensors. 2021; 21(17):5733. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21175733

Chicago/Turabian Style

Haule, Kamila, Henryk Toczek, Karolina Borzycka, and Mirosław Darecki. 2021. "Influence of Dispersed Oil on the Remote Sensing Reflectance—Field Experiment in the Baltic Sea" Sensors 21, no. 17: 5733. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21175733

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