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Article

Enhanced Breathing Pattern Detection during Running Using Wearable Sensors

Department of Sport and Exercise Science, University of Salzburg, Schlossallee 49, 5400 Hallein-Rif, Austria
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Academic Editor: Massimo Sacchetti
Sensors 2021, 21(16), 5606; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21165606
Received: 29 July 2021 / Revised: 16 August 2021 / Accepted: 18 August 2021 / Published: 20 August 2021
Breathing pattern (BP) is related to key psychophysiological and performance variables during exercise. Modern wearable sensors and data analysis techniques facilitate BP analysis during running but are lacking crucial validation steps in their deployment. Thus, we sought to evaluate a wearable garment with respiratory inductance plethysmography (RIP) sensors in combination with a custom-built algorithm versus a reference spirometry system to determine its concurrent validity in detecting flow reversals (FR) and BP. Twelve runners completed an incremental running protocol to exhaustion with synchronized spirometry and RIP sensors. An algorithm was developed to filter, segment, and enrich the RIP data for FR and BP estimation. The algorithm successfully identified over 99% of FR with an average time lag of 0.018 s (−0.067,0.104) after the reference system. Breathing rate (BR) estimation had low mean absolute percent error (MAPE = 2.74 [0.00,5.99]), but other BP components had variable accuracy. The proposed system is valid and practically useful for applications of BP assessment in the field, especially when measuring abrupt changes in BR. More studies are needed to improve BP timing estimation and utilize abdominal RIP during running. View Full-Text
Keywords: breathing pattern; breathing rate; respiratory frequency; ventilation; breathing sensors; respiration sensors; running sensors; respiratory inductance plethysmography breathing pattern; breathing rate; respiratory frequency; ventilation; breathing sensors; respiration sensors; running sensors; respiratory inductance plethysmography
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MDPI and ACS Style

Harbour, E.; Lasshofer, M.; Genitrini, M.; Schwameder, H. Enhanced Breathing Pattern Detection during Running Using Wearable Sensors. Sensors 2021, 21, 5606. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21165606

AMA Style

Harbour E, Lasshofer M, Genitrini M, Schwameder H. Enhanced Breathing Pattern Detection during Running Using Wearable Sensors. Sensors. 2021; 21(16):5606. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21165606

Chicago/Turabian Style

Harbour, Eric, Michael Lasshofer, Matteo Genitrini, and Hermann Schwameder. 2021. "Enhanced Breathing Pattern Detection during Running Using Wearable Sensors" Sensors 21, no. 16: 5606. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21165606

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