Next Article in Journal
Empirical Overview of Benchmark Datasets for Geomagnetic Field-Based Indoor Positioning
Next Article in Special Issue
RF Sensing Based Breathing Patterns Detection Leveraging USRP Devices
Previous Article in Journal
UAV Photogrammetry under Poor Lighting Conditions—Accuracy Considerations
Previous Article in Special Issue
Fully Flexible Textile Antenna-Backed Sensor Node for Body-Worn UWB Localization
Article

Securing the Insecure: A First-Line-of-Defense for Body-Centric Nanoscale Communication Systems Operating in THz Band

1
Electrical Engineering Department, Information Technology University, Lahore 54000, Pakistan
2
Department of Electronics and Nano Engineering, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, UK
3
Division of Biomedical Engineering, School of Engineering, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, UK
4
Artificial Intelligence Research Center (AIRC), Ajman University, Ajman 00000, United Arab Emirates
5
School of Electronic Engineering and Computer Science, Queen Mary University of London, London E1 4NS, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Anna Maria Vegni
Sensors 2021, 21(10), 3534; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21103534
Received: 21 April 2021 / Revised: 14 May 2021 / Accepted: 17 May 2021 / Published: 19 May 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Body-Centric Sensors for the Internet of Things)
This manuscript presents a novel mechanism (at the physical layer) for authentication and transmitter identification in a body-centric nanoscale communication system operating in the terahertz (THz) band. The unique characteristics of the propagation medium in the THz band renders the existing techniques (say for impersonation detection in cellular networks) not applicable. In this work, we considered a body-centric network with multiple on-body nano-senor nodes (of which some nano-sensors have been compromised) who communicate their sensed data to a nearby gateway node. We proposed to protect the transmissions on the link between the legitimate nano-sensor nodes and the gateway by exploiting the path loss of the THz propagation medium as the fingerprint/feature of the sender node to carry out authentication at the gateway. Specifically, we proposed a two-step hypothesis testing mechanism at the gateway to counter the impersonation (false data injection) attacks by malicious nano-sensors. To this end, we computed the path loss of the THz link under consideration using the high-resolution transmission molecular absorption (HITRAN) database. Furthermore, to refine the outcome of the two-step hypothesis testing device, we modeled the impersonation attack detection problem as a hidden Markov model (HMM), which was then solved by the classical Viterbi algorithm. As a bye-product of the authentication problem, we performed transmitter identification (when the two-step hypothesis testing device decides no impersonation) using (i) the maximum likelihood (ML) method and (ii) the Gaussian mixture model (GMM), whose parameters are learned via the expectation–maximization algorithm. Our simulation results showed that the two error probabilities (missed detection and false alarm) were decreasing functions of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Specifically, at an SNR of 10 dB with a pre-specified false alarm rate of 0.2, the probability of correct detection was almost one. We further noticed that the HMM method outperformed the two-step hypothesis testing method at low SNRs (e.g., a 10% increase in accuracy was recorded at SNR = −5 dB), as expected. Finally, it was observed that the GMM method was useful when the ground truths (the true path loss values for all the legitimate THz links) were noisy. View Full-Text
Keywords: body-centric sensor networks; nanoscale communication; terahertz communication; nano sensors; security; authentication; outlier detection; sensor networks; healthcare systems body-centric sensor networks; nanoscale communication; terahertz communication; nano sensors; security; authentication; outlier detection; sensor networks; healthcare systems
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Aman, W.; Rahman, M.M.U.; Abbas, H.T.; Khalid, M.A.; Imran, M.A.; Alomainy, A.; Abbasi, Q.H. Securing the Insecure: A First-Line-of-Defense for Body-Centric Nanoscale Communication Systems Operating in THz Band. Sensors 2021, 21, 3534. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21103534

AMA Style

Aman W, Rahman MMU, Abbas HT, Khalid MA, Imran MA, Alomainy A, Abbasi QH. Securing the Insecure: A First-Line-of-Defense for Body-Centric Nanoscale Communication Systems Operating in THz Band. Sensors. 2021; 21(10):3534. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21103534

Chicago/Turabian Style

Aman, Waqas, Muhammad M.U. Rahman, Hasan T. Abbas, Muhammad A. Khalid, Muhammad A. Imran, Akram Alomainy, and Qammer H. Abbasi. 2021. "Securing the Insecure: A First-Line-of-Defense for Body-Centric Nanoscale Communication Systems Operating in THz Band" Sensors 21, no. 10: 3534. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21103534

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop