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Open AccessArticle

A Low-Resources TDC for Multi-Channel Direct ToF Readout Based on a 28-nm FPGA

Instituto de Microelectrónica de Sevilla, IMSE-CNM (CSIC-Universidad de Sevilla), Avda. Américo Vespucio s/n, Parque Científico y Tecnológico de La Cartuja, 41092 Seville, Spain
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Sensors 2021, 21(1), 308; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21010308
Received: 1 December 2020 / Revised: 25 December 2020 / Accepted: 31 December 2020 / Published: 5 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SPAD Image Sensors)
In this paper, we present a proposed field programmable gate array (FPGA)-based time-to-digital converter (TDC) architecture to achieve high performance with low usage of resources. This TDC can be employed for multi-channel direct Time-of-Flight (ToF) applications. The proposed architecture consists of a synchronizing input stage, a tuned tapped delay line (TDL), a combinatory encoder of ones and zeros counters, and an online calibration stage. The experimental results of the TDC in an Artix-7 FPGA show a differential non-linearity (DNL) in the range of [−0.953, 1.185] LSB, and an integral non-linearity (INL) within [−2.750, 1.238] LSB. The measured LSB size and precision are 22.2 ps and 26.04 ps, respectively. Moreover, the proposed architecture requires low FPGA resources. View Full-Text
Keywords: field programmable gate array (FPGA); tapped-delay-line (TDL); thermometer-to-binary (T2B) encoder; multichannel TDCs; time-to-digital converter (TDC); time-of-flight (ToF); single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) field programmable gate array (FPGA); tapped-delay-line (TDL); thermometer-to-binary (T2B) encoder; multichannel TDCs; time-to-digital converter (TDC); time-of-flight (ToF); single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD)
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MDPI and ACS Style

Parsakordasiabi, M.; Vornicu, I.; Rodríguez-Vázquez, Á.; Carmona-Galán, R. A Low-Resources TDC for Multi-Channel Direct ToF Readout Based on a 28-nm FPGA. Sensors 2021, 21, 308. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21010308

AMA Style

Parsakordasiabi M, Vornicu I, Rodríguez-Vázquez Á, Carmona-Galán R. A Low-Resources TDC for Multi-Channel Direct ToF Readout Based on a 28-nm FPGA. Sensors. 2021; 21(1):308. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21010308

Chicago/Turabian Style

Parsakordasiabi, Mojtaba; Vornicu, Ion; Rodríguez-Vázquez, Ángel; Carmona-Galán, Ricardo. 2021. "A Low-Resources TDC for Multi-Channel Direct ToF Readout Based on a 28-nm FPGA" Sensors 21, no. 1: 308. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21010308

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