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Article

Oxygen Saturation Imaging Using LED-Based Photoacoustic System

1
Biomedical Photonic Imaging (BMPI), Technical Medical Center, University of Twente, 7500 AE Enschede, The Netherlands
2
Research & Business Development Division, CYBERDYNE Inc., Cambridge Innovation Center, 3013 AK Rotterdam, The Netherlands
3
Department of Biomedical Engineering, Science and Technology Center, Tufts University, Medford, MA 02155, USA
4
Wellman Center for Photomedicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally.
Sensors 2021, 21(1), 283; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21010283
Received: 15 December 2020 / Revised: 31 December 2020 / Accepted: 1 January 2021 / Published: 4 January 2021
Oxygen saturation imaging has potential in several preclinical and clinical applications. Dual-wavelength LED array-based photoacoustic oxygen saturation imaging can be an affordable solution in this case. For the translation of this technology, there is a need to improve its accuracy and validate it against ground truth methods. We propose a fluence compensated oxygen saturation imaging method, utilizing structural information from the ultrasound image, and prior knowledge of the optical properties of the tissue with a Monte-Carlo based light propagation model for the dual-wavelength LED array configuration. We then validate the proposed method with oximeter measurements in tissue-mimicking phantoms. Further, we demonstrate in vivo imaging on small animal and a human subject. We conclude that the proposed oxygen saturation imaging can be used to image tissue at a depth of 6–8 mm in both preclinical and clinical applications. View Full-Text
Keywords: oxygen saturation imaging; LED; photoacoustics; ultrasound; fluence compensation; in vivo; hypoxia oxygen saturation imaging; LED; photoacoustics; ultrasound; fluence compensation; in vivo; hypoxia
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MDPI and ACS Style

Bulsink, R.; Kuniyil Ajith Singh, M.; Xavierselvan, M.; Mallidi, S.; Steenbergen, W.; Francis, K.J. Oxygen Saturation Imaging Using LED-Based Photoacoustic System. Sensors 2021, 21, 283. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21010283

AMA Style

Bulsink R, Kuniyil Ajith Singh M, Xavierselvan M, Mallidi S, Steenbergen W, Francis KJ. Oxygen Saturation Imaging Using LED-Based Photoacoustic System. Sensors. 2021; 21(1):283. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21010283

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bulsink, Rianne, Mithun Kuniyil Ajith Singh, Marvin Xavierselvan, Srivalleesha Mallidi, Wiendelt Steenbergen, and Kalloor J. Francis. 2021. "Oxygen Saturation Imaging Using LED-Based Photoacoustic System" Sensors 21, no. 1: 283. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21010283

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