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Modelling, Analysis, and Simulation of the Micro-Doppler Effect in Wideband Indoor Channels with Confirmation Through Pendulum Experiments

Faculty of Engineering and Science, University of Agder, P.O. Box 509, 4898 Grimstad, Norway
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Sensors 2020, 20(4), 1049; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20041049
Received: 2 January 2020 / Revised: 7 February 2020 / Accepted: 11 February 2020 / Published: 14 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Radio Sensing and Sensor Networks)
This paper is about designing a 3D no n-stationary wideband indoor channel model for radio-frequency sensing. The proposed channel model allows for simulating the time-variant (TV) characteristics of the received signal of indoor channel in the presence of a moving object. The moving object is modelled by a point scatterer which travels along a trajectory. The trajectory is described by the object’s TV speed, TV horizontal angle of motion, and TV vertical angle of motion. An expression of the TV Doppler frequency caused by the moving scatterer is derived. Furthermore, an expression of the TV complex channel transfer function (CTF) of the received signal is provided, which accounts for the influence of a moving object and fixed objects, such as walls, ceiling, and furniture. An approximate analytical solution of the spectrogram of the CTF is derived. The proposed channel model is confirmed by measurements obtained from a pendulum experiment. In the pendulum experiment, the trajectory of the pendulum has been measured by using an inertial-measurement unit (IMU) and simultaneously collecting CSI data. For validation, we have compared the spectrogram of the proposed channel model fed with IMU data with the spectrogram characteristics of the measured CSI data. The proposed channel model paves the way towards designing simulation-based activity recognition systems.
Keywords: spectrogram; 3D no n-stationary channels; indoor channels; doppler frequency; channel state information; Wi-Fi 802.11n; inertial measurement units; micro-doppler effect; CSI spectrogram; 3D no n-stationary channels; indoor channels; doppler frequency; channel state information; Wi-Fi 802.11n; inertial measurement units; micro-doppler effect; CSI
MDPI and ACS Style

Abdelgawwad, A.; Borhani, A.; Pätzold, M. Modelling, Analysis, and Simulation of the Micro-Doppler Effect in Wideband Indoor Channels with Confirmation Through Pendulum Experiments. Sensors 2020, 20, 1049.

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