Next Article in Journal
2D Convolutional Neural Markov Models for Spatiotemporal Sequence Forecasting
Next Article in Special Issue
Over 1000 nm Near-Infrared Multispectral Imaging System for Laparoscopic In Vivo Imaging
Previous Article in Journal
Two-Channel Graphene pH Sensor Using Semi-Ionic Fluorinated Graphene Reference Electrode
Previous Article in Special Issue
A Computational Method to Assist the Diagnosis of Breast Disease Using Dynamic Thermography
 
 
Article

Smart Sensor Based on Biofeedback to Measure Child Relaxation in Out-of-Home Care

1
Mechatronics, Engineering Faculty, Campus San Juan del Rio, University Autonomous of Queretaro, San Juan del Rio, Queretaro 76803, Mexico
2
Psychology/Psychology Faculty, University of Colima, Colima 28040, Mexico
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2020, 20(15), 4194; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20154194
Received: 2 June 2020 / Revised: 19 July 2020 / Accepted: 20 July 2020 / Published: 28 July 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomedical Infrared Imaging: From Sensors to Applications Ⅱ)
Children from out-of-home care are a vulnerable population that faces high stress and anxiety levels due to stressful experiences, such as being abused, being raped, and violence. This problem could have negative effects on their bio-psycho-social well-being if they are not provided with comprehensive psychological treatment. Numerous methods have been developed to help them relax, but there are no current approaches for assessing the relaxation level they reach. Based on this, a novel smart sensor that can evaluate the level of relaxation a child experiences is developed in this paper. It evaluates changes in thermal biomarkers (forehead, right and left cheek, chin, and maxillary) and heart rate (HR). Then, through a k-nearest neighbors (K-NN) intelligent classifier, four possible levels of relaxation can be obtained: no-relax, low-relax, relax, and very-relax. Additionally, an application (called i-CARE) for anxiety management, which is based on biofeedback diaphragmatic breathing, guided imagery, and video games, is evaluated. After testing the developed smart sensor, an 89.7% accuracy is obtained. The smart sensor used provides a reliable measurement of relaxation levels and the i-CARE application is effective for anxiety management, both of which are focused on children exposed to out-of-home care conditions. View Full-Text
Keywords: children in out-of-home care; thermal biomarkers; biofeedback; relaxation; smart sensor children in out-of-home care; thermal biomarkers; biofeedback; relaxation; smart sensor
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Jaramillo-Quintanar, D.; Cruz-Albarran, I.A.; Guzman-Sandoval, V.M.; Morales-Hernandez, L.A. Smart Sensor Based on Biofeedback to Measure Child Relaxation in Out-of-Home Care. Sensors 2020, 20, 4194. https://doi.org/10.3390/s20154194

AMA Style

Jaramillo-Quintanar D, Cruz-Albarran IA, Guzman-Sandoval VM, Morales-Hernandez LA. Smart Sensor Based on Biofeedback to Measure Child Relaxation in Out-of-Home Care. Sensors. 2020; 20(15):4194. https://doi.org/10.3390/s20154194

Chicago/Turabian Style

Jaramillo-Quintanar, Daniel, Irving A. Cruz-Albarran, Veronica M. Guzman-Sandoval, and Luis A. Morales-Hernandez. 2020. "Smart Sensor Based on Biofeedback to Measure Child Relaxation in Out-of-Home Care" Sensors 20, no. 15: 4194. https://doi.org/10.3390/s20154194

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop