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Review

Long-Period Gratings and Microcavity In-Line Mach Zehnder Interferometers as Highly Sensitive Optical Fiber Platforms for Bacteria Sensing

1
Centre de Recherche en Photonique, Université du Québec en Outaouais, 101 rue Saint-Jean-Bosco, Gatineau, QC J8X 3X7, Canada
2
Institute of Microelectronics and Optoelectronics, Warsaw University of Technology, Koszykowa 75, 00-662 Warsaw, Poland
3
Department of Metrology and Optoelectronics, Faculty of Electronics, Telecommunications and Informatics, Gdansk University of Technology, Narutowicza 11/12, 80-233 Gdansk, Poland
4
National Institute of Telecommunications, Szachowa 1, 04-894 Warsaw, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Both authors contributed equally to this work.
Sensors 2020, 20(13), 3772; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20133772
Received: 18 May 2020 / Revised: 23 June 2020 / Accepted: 27 June 2020 / Published: 5 July 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Refractive Index Fibre and Integrated Optic Sensors)
Selected optical fiber sensors offer extraordinary sensitivity to changes in external refractive (RI), which make them promising for label-free biosensing. In this work the most sensitive ones, namely long-period gratings working at (DTP-LPG) and micro-cavity in-line Mach-Zehnder interferometers (µIMZI) are discussed for application in bacteria sensing. We describe their working principles and RI sensitivity when operating in water environments, which is as high as 20,000 nm/RIU (Refractive index unit) for DTP-LPGs and 27,000 nm/RIU for µIMZIs. Special attention is paid to the methods to enhance the sensitivity by etching and nano-coatings. While the DTP-LPGs offer a greater interaction length and sensitivity to changes taking place at their surface, the µIMZIs are best suited for investigations of sub-nanoliter and picoliter volumes. The capabilities of both the platforms for bacteria sensing are presented and compared for strains of Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharide E. coli, outer membrane proteins of E. coli, and Staphylococcus aureus. While DTP-LPGs have been more explored for bacteria detection in 102–106 Colony Forming Unit (CFU)/mL for S. aureus and 103–109 CFU/mL for E. coli, the µIMZIs reached 102–108 CFU/mL for E. coli and have a potential for becoming picoliter bacteria sensors. View Full-Text
Keywords: optical fiber sensors; label-free biosensing; bacteria detection; long-period gratings; microcavity Mach-Zehnder interferometers optical fiber sensors; label-free biosensing; bacteria detection; long-period gratings; microcavity Mach-Zehnder interferometers
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MDPI and ACS Style

Eftimov, T.; Janik, M.; Koba, M.; Śmietana, M.; Mikulic, P.; Bock, W. Long-Period Gratings and Microcavity In-Line Mach Zehnder Interferometers as Highly Sensitive Optical Fiber Platforms for Bacteria Sensing. Sensors 2020, 20, 3772. https://doi.org/10.3390/s20133772

AMA Style

Eftimov T, Janik M, Koba M, Śmietana M, Mikulic P, Bock W. Long-Period Gratings and Microcavity In-Line Mach Zehnder Interferometers as Highly Sensitive Optical Fiber Platforms for Bacteria Sensing. Sensors. 2020; 20(13):3772. https://doi.org/10.3390/s20133772

Chicago/Turabian Style

Eftimov, Tinko, Monika Janik, Marcin Koba, Mateusz Śmietana, Predrag Mikulic, and Wojtek Bock. 2020. "Long-Period Gratings and Microcavity In-Line Mach Zehnder Interferometers as Highly Sensitive Optical Fiber Platforms for Bacteria Sensing" Sensors 20, no. 13: 3772. https://doi.org/10.3390/s20133772

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