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Open AccessArticle

Wearable Monitoring and Interpretable Machine Learning Can Objectively Track Progression in Patients during Cardiac Rehabilitation

1
Mobile Health Unit, Faculty of Medicine and Life Sciences, Hasselt University, 3500 Hasselt, Belgium
2
Future Health Department, Ziekenhuis Oost-Limburg, 3600 Genk, Belgium
3
imec the Netherlands/Holst Centre, 5656AE Eindhoven, The Netherlands
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KU Leuven, Department of Electrical Engineering (ESAT), STADIUS Center for Dynamical Systems, Signal Processing and Data Analytics, 3001 Leuven, Belgium
5
TU Delft, Department of Microelectronics, Circuits and Systems (CAS), 2600AA Delft, The Netherlands
6
imec vzw Belgium, 3001 Leuven, Belgium
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Department of Cardiology, Ziekenhuis Oost-Limburg, 3600 Genk, Belgium
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2020, 20(12), 3601; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20123601
Received: 28 April 2020 / Revised: 12 June 2020 / Accepted: 22 June 2020 / Published: 26 June 2020
Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are often characterized by their multifactorial complexity. This makes remote monitoring and ambulatory cardiac rehabilitation (CR) therapy challenging. Current wearable multimodal devices enable remote monitoring. Machine learning (ML) and artificial intelligence (AI) can help in tackling multifaceted datasets. However, for clinical acceptance, easy interpretability of the AI models is crucial. The goal of the present study was to investigate whether a multi-parameter sensor could be used during a standardized activity test to interpret functional capacity in the longitudinal follow-up of CR patients. A total of 129 patients were followed for 3 months during CR using 6-min walking tests (6MWT) equipped with a wearable ECG and accelerometer device. Functional capacity was assessed based on 6MWT distance (6MWD). Linear and nonlinear interpretable models were explored to predict 6MWD. The t-distributed stochastic neighboring embedding (t-SNE) technique was exploited to embed and visualize high dimensional data. The performance of support vector machine (SVM) models, combining different features and using different kernel types, to predict functional capacity was evaluated. The SVM model, using chronotropic response and effort as input features, showed a mean absolute error of 42.8 m (±36.8 m). The 3D-maps derived using the t-SNE technique visualized the relationship between sensor-derived biomarkers and functional capacity, which enables tracking of the evolution of patients throughout the CR program. The current study showed that wearable monitoring combined with interpretable ML can objectively track clinical progression in a CR population. These results pave the road towards ambulatory CR. View Full-Text
Keywords: wearable sensor; machine learning; physical fitness assessment; cardiac rehabilitation; patient progression monitoring wearable sensor; machine learning; physical fitness assessment; cardiac rehabilitation; patient progression monitoring
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De Cannière, H.; Corradi, F.; Smeets, C.J.P.; Schoutteten, M.; Varon, C.; Van Hoof, C.; Van Huffel, S.; Groenendaal, W.; Vandervoort, P. Wearable Monitoring and Interpretable Machine Learning Can Objectively Track Progression in Patients during Cardiac Rehabilitation. Sensors 2020, 20, 3601.

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