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Direct Electrochemical Detection of Glutamate, Acetylcholine, Choline, and Adenosine Using Non-Enzymatic Electrodes

Department of Mechanical and Energy Engineering, University of North Texas, Denton, TX 76209, USA
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2019, 19(3), 447; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19030447
Received: 9 November 2018 / Revised: 6 January 2019 / Accepted: 18 January 2019 / Published: 22 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Biosensors)
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Abstract

Non-electroactive neurotransmitters such as glutamate, acetylcholine, choline, and adenosine play a critical role in proper activity of living organisms, particularly in the nervous system. While enzyme-based sensing of this type of neurotransmitter has been a research interest for years, non-enzymatic approaches are gaining more attention because of their stability and low cost. Accordingly, this focused review aims to give a summary of the state of the art of non-enzymatic electrochemical sensors used for detection of neurotransmitter that lack an electrochemically active component. In place of using enzymes, transition metal materials such as those based on nickel show an acceptable level of catalytic activity for neurotransmitter sensing. They benefit from fast electron transport properties and high surface energy and their catalytic activity can be much improved if their surface is modified with nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes and platinum nanoparticles. However, a general comparison reveals that the performance of non-enzymatic biosensors is still lower than those that use enzyme-based methods. Nevertheless, their excellent stability demonstrates that non-enzymatic neurotransmitter sensors warrant additional research in order to advance them toward becoming an acceptable replacement for the more expensive enzyme-based sensors. View Full-Text
Keywords: non-electroactive neurotransmitter; electrochemical biosensor; non-enzymatic sensing; nanobiological materials non-electroactive neurotransmitter; electrochemical biosensor; non-enzymatic sensing; nanobiological materials
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Shadlaghani, A.; Farzaneh, M.; Kinser, D.; Reid, R.C. Direct Electrochemical Detection of Glutamate, Acetylcholine, Choline, and Adenosine Using Non-Enzymatic Electrodes. Sensors 2019, 19, 447.

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