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Sensors 2019, 19(2), 425; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19020425

Damage Quantification with Embedded Piezoelectric Aggregates Based on Wavelet Packet Energy Analysis

1, 2,* and 2,*
1
State Key Laboratory of Hydrology-Water Resources and Hydraulic Engineering, Nanjing Hydraulic Research Institute, Nanjing 210029, China
2
School of Mechanics and Materials, Hohai University, Nanjing 210024, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 6 January 2019 / Revised: 16 January 2019 / Accepted: 17 January 2019 / Published: 21 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors Based NDE and NDT)
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Abstract

Cement-based components have been widely used in civil engineering structures. However, due to wearing and deterioration, the cement-based components may have brittle failure. To provide early warning and to support predictive reinforcement, the piezoelectric materials are embedded into the cement-based components to excite and receive elastic waves. By recognizing the abnormalities in the elastic waves, hidden damage can be identified in advance. However, few research has been published regarding the damage quantification. In this paper, the wavelet packet analysis is adopted to calculate the energy of the transmitted elastic waves based on the improved piezoelectric aggregates (IPAs). Due to the growth of the damage, less elastic waves can pass through the damage zone, decreasing the energy of the acquired signals. A set of cement beams with different crack depths at the mid-span is tested in both numerical and experimental ways. A damage quantification index, namely the wavelet packet-based energy index (WPEI), is developed. Both the numerical and experimental results demonstrate that the WPEI decreases with respect to the crack depth. Based on the regression analysis, a strong linear relationship has been observed between the WPEI and the crack depth. By referring to the linear relationship, the crack depth can be estimated by the WPEI with a good accuracy. The results demonstrated that the use of the IPAs and the WPEI can fulfill the real-time quantification of the crack depth in the cement beams. View Full-Text
Keywords: smart aggregate; piezoelectric material; structural health monitoring; elastic waves; damage quantification; wavelet packet analysis; cement material; finite element modeling; explicit analysis smart aggregate; piezoelectric material; structural health monitoring; elastic waves; damage quantification; wavelet packet analysis; cement material; finite element modeling; explicit analysis
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Wang, Z.; Wei, L.; Cao, M. Damage Quantification with Embedded Piezoelectric Aggregates Based on Wavelet Packet Energy Analysis. Sensors 2019, 19, 425.

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