Riding the wave of visual sensor equipment (e.g., personal smartphones, home security cameras, vehicle cameras, and camcorders), image retrieval (IR) technology has received increasing attention due to its potential applications in e-commerce, visual surveillance, and intelligent traffic. However, determining how to design an effective feature descriptor has been proven to be the main bottleneck for retrieving a set of images of interest. In this paper, we first construct a six-layer color quantizer to extract a color map. Then, motivated by the human visual system, we design a local parallel cross pattern (LPCP) in which the local binary pattern (LBP) map is amalgamated with the color map in “parallel” and “cross” manners. Finally, to reduce the computational complexity and improve the robustness to image rotation, the LPCP is extended to the uniform local parallel cross pattern (ULPCP) and the rotation-invariant local parallel cross pattern (RILPCP), respectively. Extensive experiments are performed on eight benchmark datasets. The experimental results validate the effectiveness, efficiency, robustness, and computational complexity of the proposed descriptors against eight state-of-the-art color texture descriptors to produce an in-depth comparison. Additionally, compared with a series of Convolutional Neural Network (CNN)-based models, the proposed descriptors still achieve competitive results.
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