Next Article in Journal
End-to-End Learning Framework for IMU-Based 6-DOF Odometry
Next Article in Special Issue
Airborne Visual Detection and Tracking of Cooperative UAVs Exploiting Deep Learning
Previous Article in Journal
A Vibration Energy Harvester and Power Management Solution for Battery-Free Operation of Wireless Sensor Nodes
Previous Article in Special Issue
Towards Automatic UAS-Based Snow-Field Monitoring for Microclimate Research
Open AccessArticle

Evaluating Water Level Changes at Different Tidal Phases Using UAV Photogrammetry and GNSS Vertical Data

1
Department of Geoinformation, Faculty of Built Environment and Surveying, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), Johor Bahru 81310, Malaysia
2
Geomatics Innovation Research Group, Faculty of Built Environment and Surveying, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), Johor Bahru 81310, Malaysia
3
Department of Geomorphology, Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj 66177-15175, Iran
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2019, 19(17), 3778; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19173778
Received: 2 July 2019 / Revised: 20 August 2019 / Accepted: 21 August 2019 / Published: 31 August 2019
Evaluating water level changes at intertidal zones is complicated because of dynamic tidal inundation. However, water level changes during different tidal phases could be evaluated using a digital surface model (DSM) captured by unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) with higher vertical accuracy provided by a Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS). Image acquisition using a multirotor UAV and vertical data collection from GNSS survey were conducted at Kilim River, Langkawi Island, Kedah, Malaysia during two different tidal phases, at high and low tides. Using the Structure from Motion (SFM) algorithm, a DSM and orthomosaics were produced as the main sources of data analysis. GNSS provided horizontal and vertical geo-referencing for both the DSM and orthomosaics during post-processing after field observation at the study area. The DSM vertical accuracy against the tidal data from a tide gauge was about 12.6 cm (0.126 m) for high tide and 34.5 cm (0.345 m) for low tide. Hence, the vertical accuracy of the DSM height is still within a tolerance of ±0.5 m (with GNSS positioning data). These results open new opportunities to explore more validation methods for water level changes using various aerial platforms besides Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) and tidal data in the future. View Full-Text
Keywords: water level changes; UAV photogrammetry; tidal phase; GNSS; Kilim River water level changes; UAV photogrammetry; tidal phase; GNSS; Kilim River
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Mohamad, N.; Abdul Khanan, M.F.; Ahmad, A.; Md Din, A.H.; Shahabi, H. Evaluating Water Level Changes at Different Tidal Phases Using UAV Photogrammetry and GNSS Vertical Data. Sensors 2019, 19, 3778.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop