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A Wide Dynamic Range CMOS Image Sensor with a Charge Splitting Gate and Two Storage Diodes

1
Graduate School of Science and Technology, Shizuoka University, Hamamatsu, Shizuoka 432-8011, Japan
2
Research Institute of Electronics, Shizuoka University, Hamamatsu, Shizuoka 432-8011, Japan
3
Kyungpook National University, Buk-gu, Daegu 702-701, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2019, 19(13), 2904; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19132904
Received: 5 May 2019 / Revised: 23 June 2019 / Accepted: 28 June 2019 / Published: 30 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
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Abstract

In this paper, a wide dynamic range (WDR) CMOS image sensor (CIS) with a charge splitting gate (SG) and two storage diodes (SDs) is presented. By using single-gate on/off control with the SG, photocurrent path to the first (SD1) or second storage diodes (SD2) is switched alternatively and periodically during exposure and signal electrons generated in a photodiode (PD) are transferred to and accumulated in the SD1 or SD2. By setting a large ratio of the off-time to on-time of the SG, two different sensitivity signals, which are originated by the same photodiode, are generated and a WDR image signal is obtained. This technique has a distinct advantage on mitigating the problem of motion artifact in WDR imaging with high and low sensitivity signals and flexible dynamic control of the dynamic range. An experimental WDR CMOS image sensor with 280 (H) × 406 (V)-pixel array consisting of 14 sub-arrays, each of which have 20 (H) × 406 (V) pixels, was implemented and tested. For the SG on/off-time ratio of 30 and 279, the DR of 93 dB and 104 dB, respectively, was demonstrated. The effect of the proposed WDR imaging operation on the reduced motion artifact was experimentally confirmed. View Full-Text
Keywords: CMOS image sensor; storage diode; high- and low-sensitivity; charge splitting gate (SG); wide dynamic range (WDR) CMOS image sensor; storage diode; high- and low-sensitivity; charge splitting gate (SG); wide dynamic range (WDR)
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Lee, M.; Seo, M.-W.; Kim, J.; Yasutomi, K.; Kagawa, K.; Shin, J.-K.; Kawahito, S. A Wide Dynamic Range CMOS Image Sensor with a Charge Splitting Gate and Two Storage Diodes. Sensors 2019, 19, 2904.

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