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Open AccessArticle

Performance Evaluation of Non-GPS Based Localization Techniques under Shadowing Effects

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School of Electrical, Computer and Telecommunications Engineering, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522, Australia
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Fulbright School of Public Policy and Management, Fulbright University Vietnam, District 7, Ho Chi Minh City 700000, Vietnam
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School of Management, Operations and Marketing, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522, Australia
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School of Geography and Sustainable Communities, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522, Australia
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SMART Infrastructure Facility, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2019, 19(11), 2633; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19112633
Received: 18 April 2019 / Revised: 24 May 2019 / Accepted: 6 June 2019 / Published: 10 June 2019
Non-GPS localization has gained much interest from researchers and industries recently because GPS might fail to meet the accuracy requirements in shadowing environments. The two most common range-based non-GPS localization methods, namely Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) and Angle-of-Arrival (AOA), have been intensively mentioned in the literature over the last decade. However, an in-depth analysis of the weighted combination methods of AOA and RSSI in shadowing environments is still missing in the state-of-the-art. This paper proposes several weighted combinations of the two RSSI and AOA components in the form of pAOA + qRSSI, devises the mathematical model for analyzing shadowing effects, and evaluates these weighted combination localization methods from both accuracy and precision perspectives. Our simulations show that increasing the number of anchors does not necessarily improve the precision and accuracy, that the AOA component is less susceptible to shadowing than the RSSI one, and that increasing the weight of the AOA component and reducing that of the RSSI component help improve the accuracy and precision at high Signal-to-Noise Ratios (SNRs). This observation suggests that some power control algorithm could be used to increase automatically the transmitted power when the channel experiences large shadowing to maintain a high SNR, thus guaranteeing both accuracy and precision of the weighted combination localization techniques. View Full-Text
Keywords: Non-GPS localization; AOA; RSSI; shadowing effects; VANET Non-GPS localization; AOA; RSSI; shadowing effects; VANET
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Nguyen, N.M.; Tran, L.C.; Safaei, F.; Phung, S.L.; Vial, P.; Huynh, N.; Cox, A.; Harada, T.; Barthelemy, J. Performance Evaluation of Non-GPS Based Localization Techniques under Shadowing Effects. Sensors 2019, 19, 2633.

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