Biosensing strategies that employ readily adaptable materials for different analytes, can be miniaturized into needle electrode form, and function in bodily fluids represent a significant step toward the development of clinically relevant in vitro and in vivo sensors. In this work, a general scheme for 1st generation amperometric biosensors involving layer-by-layer electrode modification with enzyme-doped xerogels, electrochemically-deposited polymer, and polyurethane semi-permeable membranes is shown to achieve these goals. With minor modifications to these materials, sensors representing potential point-of-care medical tools are demonstrated to be sensitive and selective for a number of conditions. The potential for bedside measurements or continuous monitoring of analytes may offer faster and more accurate clinical diagnoses for diseases such as diabetes (glucose), preeclampsia (uric acid), galactosemia (galactose), xanthinuria (xanthine), and sepsis (lactate). For the specific diagnostic application, the sensing schemes have been miniaturized to wire electrodes and/or demonstrated as functional in synthetic urine or blood serum. Signal enhancement through the incorporation of platinum nanoparticle film in the scheme offers additional design control within the sensing scheme. The presented sensing strategy has the potential to be applied to any disease that has a related biomolecule and corresponding oxidase enzyme and represents rare, adaptable, sensing capabilities.
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