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Open AccessFeature PaperReview

Brillouin Dynamic Gratings—A Practical Form of Brillouin Enhanced Four Wave Mixing in Waveguides: The First Decade and Beyond

by Arik Bergman 1,* and Moshe Tur 2
1
Faculty of Engineering and Institute for Nano-Technology and Advanced Materials (BINA), Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan 5290002, Israel
2
School of Electrical Engineering, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv 6997801, Israel
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2018, 18(9), 2863; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18092863
Received: 25 July 2018 / Revised: 26 August 2018 / Accepted: 27 August 2018 / Published: 30 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optical Waveguide Based Sensors)
Brillouin-Enhanced Four-Wave-Mixing techniques, which couple four optical beams through Brillouin nonlinearity, have gained popularity in the 1980’s largely owing to their phase conjugation properties. Experiments were mainly conducted in liquid cells. The interest in Brillouin-Enhanced Four-Wave-Mixing has reawakened in the 2000’s, following the quest for dynamically reconfigurable gratings in optical fibers. Termed Brillouin Dynamic Grating this time around, it is, in fact, an acoustic wave, optically generated by stimulated Brillouin scattering process between two pump waves. The acoustic wave either carries the coherent information encoded by the pump beams, or in the case of sensing applications, its properties are determined by the environmental parameters. This information, in turn, is imparted to the third phase-matched optical probe wave through the elasto-optic effect. Over the last decade, this mechanism allowed for the realization of many all-optical signal processing functions and has proven instrumental in distributed sensing applications. This paper describes the basics, as well as the state of the art, of BDG-based applications in optical fibers. It also surveys the efforts being done to carry over these concepts to the photonic chip level. View Full-Text
Keywords: dynamic gratings; stimulated Brillouin scattering; optomechanics; optical data processing; fiber optics sensors dynamic gratings; stimulated Brillouin scattering; optomechanics; optical data processing; fiber optics sensors
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Bergman, A.; Tur, M. Brillouin Dynamic Gratings—A Practical Form of Brillouin Enhanced Four Wave Mixing in Waveguides: The First Decade and Beyond. Sensors 2018, 18, 2863.

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