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Sensors 2018, 18(8), 2632; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18082632

An Improved Electronic Image Motion Compensation (IMC) Method of Aerial Full-Frame-Type Area Array CCD Camera Based on the CCD Multiphase Structure and Hardware Implementation

1
Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130033, China
2
School of Physics, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024, China
3
Chu Kochen Honors College, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 311058, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 May 2018 / Revised: 7 June 2018 / Accepted: 9 August 2018 / Published: 11 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) Sensors)
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Abstract

In this paper, the performance of the electronic conventional image motion compensation (IMC) method based on the time delay integration (TDI) mode was analyzed using the optical injection formula of charge coupled devices (CCDs). The result shows that the non-synchronous effect of charge packet transfer caused by line-by-line transfer during exposure makes the compensated image dissatisfying. Then an improved electronic IMC method based on the CCD multiphase structure was proposed. In this method, a series of proper driving clocks were applied to drive the charge packet to move electrode-by-electrode during the exposure time, which results in a minimum non-synchronous effect of charge packet transfer. The mismatch of velocity between charge packet transfer and image motion was decreased. The performance of the improved electronic IMC method was also analyzed using the optical injection formula. The modulation degrees of the two methods were compared. The average value of the modulation degree of the improved electronic IMC method was 47/96, greater than the conventional electronic IMC method, which was 1/3. To achieve the improved electronic IMC, the driver timing diagram of the improved electronic IMC method was proposed. This paper presented an improved hardware implementation method for the improved electronic IMC method. Based on the basic FTF4052M drive circuit system, an IMC pulse pattern generator that worked together with the main pulse pattern generator (SAA8103) was added to achieve the improved electronic IMC. Then, the internal structure of the IMC pulse pattern generator was given. A dual pulse pattern generator drive circuit system was proposed. After computer simulation and indoor real shot verification, the compensation effect of the improved electronic IMC method was better than the compensation effect of the conventional electronic IMC method. View Full-Text
Keywords: time delay integration (TDI); image motion; image motion compensation (IMC); charge coupled device (CCD); charge packet transfer; driver timing; non-synchronous effect; drive circuit time delay integration (TDI); image motion; image motion compensation (IMC); charge coupled device (CCD); charge packet transfer; driver timing; non-synchronous effect; drive circuit
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Ren, H.; Hu, T.T.; Song, Y.L.; Sun, H.; Liu, B.C.; Gao, M.H. An Improved Electronic Image Motion Compensation (IMC) Method of Aerial Full-Frame-Type Area Array CCD Camera Based on the CCD Multiphase Structure and Hardware Implementation. Sensors 2018, 18, 2632.

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