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Sensors 2018, 18(6), 1782; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18061782

Influence of Axial Load on Electromechanical Impedance (EMI) of Embedded Piezoceramic Transducers in Steel Fiber Concrete

1
Department of Underground Engineering, School of Civil Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031, China
2
Key Laboratory of Coastal and Offshore Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024, China
3
Smart Materials and Structures Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
The co-first author who has equal contribution with the first author.
Received: 15 March 2018 / Revised: 27 May 2018 / Accepted: 29 May 2018 / Published: 1 June 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances of Piezoelectric Transducers and Applications)
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Abstract

With the advantages of high tensile, bending, and shear strength, steel fiber concrete structures have been widely used in civil engineering. The health monitoring of concrete structures, including steel fiber concrete structures, receives increasing attention, and the Electromechanical Impedance (EMI)-based method is commonly used. Structures are often subject to changing axial load and ignoring the effect of axial forces may introduce error to Structural Health Monitoring (SHM), including the EMI-based method. However, many of the concrete structure monitoring algorithms do not consider the effects of axial loading. To investigate the influence of axial load on the EMI of a steel fiber concrete structure, concrete specimens with different steel fiber content (0, 30, 60, 90, 120) (kg/m3) were casted and the Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT)-based Smart Aggregate (SA) was used as the EMI sensor. During tests, the step-by-step loading procedure was applied on different steel fiber content specimens, and the electromechanical impedance values were measured. The Normalized root-mean-square deviation Index (NI) was developed to analyze the EMI information and evaluate the test results. The results show that the normalized root-mean-square deviation index increases with the increase of the axial load, which clearly demonstrates the influence of axial load on the EMI values for steel fiber concrete and this influence should be considered during a monitoring or damage detection procedure if the axial load changes. In addition, testing results clearly reveal that the steel fiber content, often at low mass and volume percentage, has no obvious influence on the PZT’s EMI values. Furthermore, experiments to test the repeatability of the proposed method were conducted. The repeating test results show that the EMI-based indices are repeatable and there is a great linearity between the NI and the applied loading. View Full-Text
Keywords: steel fiber concrete; axial loads; Structural Health Monitoring (SHM); Electromechanical Impedance (EMI); Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT); smart aggregates steel fiber concrete; axial loads; Structural Health Monitoring (SHM); Electromechanical Impedance (EMI); Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT); smart aggregates
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Wang, Z.; Chen, D.; Zheng, L.; Huo, L.; Song, G. Influence of Axial Load on Electromechanical Impedance (EMI) of Embedded Piezoceramic Transducers in Steel Fiber Concrete. Sensors 2018, 18, 1782.

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