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Sensors 2018, 18(5), 1363; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18051363

Long-Period Gratings in Highly Germanium-Doped, Single-Mode Optical Fibers for Sensing Applications

1
Hannover Centre for Optical Technologies, Leibniz Universität Hannover, Nienburger Str. 17, 30167 Hannover, Germany
2
Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V., Hollerithallee 8, 30419 Hannover, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 2 March 2018 / Revised: 19 April 2018 / Accepted: 25 April 2018 / Published: 27 April 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Sensors Technology in Germany)
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Abstract

Long-period fiber gratings (LPGs) are well known for their sensitivity to external influences, which make them interesting for a large number of sensing applications. For these applications, fibers with a high numerical aperture (i.e., fibers with highly germanium (Ge)-doped fused silica fiber cores) are more attractive since they are intrinsically photosensitive, as well as less sensitive to bend- and microbend-induced light attenuations. In this work, we introduce a novel method to inscribe LPGs into highly Ge-doped, single-mode fibers. By tapering the optical fiber, and thus, tailoring the effective indices of the core and cladding modes, for the first time, an LPG was inscribed into such fibers using the amplitude mask technique and a KrF excimer laser. Based on this novel method, sensitive LPG-based fiber optic sensors only a few millimeters in length can be incorporated in bend-insensitive fibers for use in various monitoring applications. Moreover, by applying the described inscription method, the LPG spectrum can be influenced and tailored according to the specific demands of a particular application. View Full-Text
Keywords: long-period fiber grating; high NA fiber; amplitude mask; excimer laser; germanium-doped fiber; single-mode fiber long-period fiber grating; high NA fiber; amplitude mask; excimer laser; germanium-doped fiber; single-mode fiber
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Schlangen, S.; Bremer, K.; Zheng, Y.; Böhm, S.; Steinke, M.; Wellmann, F.; Neumann, J.; Roth, B.; Overmeyer, L. Long-Period Gratings in Highly Germanium-Doped, Single-Mode Optical Fibers for Sensing Applications. Sensors 2018, 18, 1363.

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