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Sensors 2018, 18(5), 1331; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18051331

Feasibility of Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) for Intra-Operative Detection of Blood Flow during Gastric Tube Reconstruction

1
Department of Biomedical Engineering & Physics, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands
2
Department of Plastic, Reconstructive & Hand Surgery, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands
3
Department of Surgery, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands
4
Department of Pathology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 March 2018 / Revised: 15 April 2018 / Accepted: 21 April 2018 / Published: 25 April 2018
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Abstract

In this study; an OCT-based intra-operative imaging method for blood flow detection during esophagectomy with gastric tube reconstruction is investigated. Change in perfusion of the gastric tube tissue can lead to ischemia; with a high morbidity and mortality as a result. Anastomotic leakage (incidence 5–20%) is one of the most severe complications after esophagectomy with gastric tube reconstruction. Optical imaging techniques provide for minimal-invasive and real-time visualization tools that can be used in intraoperative settings. By implementing an optical technique for blood flow detection during surgery; perfusion can be imaged and quantified and; if needed; perfusion can be improved by either a surgical intervention or the administration of medication. The feasibility of imaging gastric microcirculation in vivo using optical coherence tomography (OCT) during surgery of patients with esophageal cancer by visualizing blood flow based on the speckle contrast from M-mode OCT images is studied. The percentage of pixels exhibiting a speckle contrast value indicative of flow was quantified to serve as an objective parameter to assess blood flow at 4 locations on the reconstructed gastric tube. Here; it was shown that OCT can be used for direct blood flow imaging during surgery and may therefore aid in improving surgical outcomes for patients. View Full-Text
Keywords: flow; monitoring; OCT; optical imaging; surgery; esophagectomy; gastric tube; perfusion; speckle flow; monitoring; OCT; optical imaging; surgery; esophagectomy; gastric tube; perfusion; speckle
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Jansen, S.M.; Almasian, M.; Wilk, L.S.; De Bruin, D.M.; Van Berge Henegouwen, M.I.; Strackee, S.D.; Bloemen, P.R.; Meijer, S.L.; Gisbertz, S.S.; Van Leeuwen, T.G. Feasibility of Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) for Intra-Operative Detection of Blood Flow during Gastric Tube Reconstruction. Sensors 2018, 18, 1331.

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