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Open AccessFeature PaperReview

Miniaturized Bio-and Chemical-Sensors for Point-of-Care Monitoring of Chronic Kidney Diseases

1
Nanotechnolgy Research Laboratory, Research School of Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200, Australia
2
Department of Engineering, University of Messina, I-9866 Messina, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2018, 18(4), 942; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18040942
Received: 9 February 2018 / Revised: 15 March 2018 / Accepted: 20 March 2018 / Published: 22 March 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-Invasive Biomedical Sensors)
This review reports the latest achievements in point-of-care (POC) sensor technologies for the monitoring of ammonia, creatinine and urea in patients suffering of chronic kidney diseases (CKDs). Abnormal levels of these nitrogen biomarkers are found in the physiological fluids, such as blood, urine and sweat, of CKD patients. Delocalized at-home monitoring of CKD biomarkers via integration of miniaturized, portable, and low cost chemical- and bio-sensors in POC devices, is an emerging approach to improve patients’ health monitoring and life quality. The successful monitoring of CKD biomarkers, performed on the different body fluids by means of sensors having strict requirements in term of size, cost, large-scale production capacity, response time and simple operation procedures for use in POC devices, is reported and discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: POC testing devices; kidney disease; chemical sensors; biosensors POC testing devices; kidney disease; chemical sensors; biosensors
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MDPI and ACS Style

Tricoli, A.; Neri, G. Miniaturized Bio-and Chemical-Sensors for Point-of-Care Monitoring of Chronic Kidney Diseases. Sensors 2018, 18, 942.

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