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Prestress Monitoring of a Steel Strand in an Anchorage Connection Using Piezoceramic Transducers and Time Reversal Method

1
Engineering Research Center for Large Highway Structure Safety of the Ministry of Education, Chang’an University, Xi’an 710064, China
2
State Key Laboratory of Coastal and Offshore Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2018, 18(11), 4018; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18114018
Received: 24 October 2018 / Revised: 11 November 2018 / Accepted: 14 November 2018 / Published: 18 November 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Sensors and Smart Structures)
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Abstract

Steel strands are widely used in cable stay or suspension bridges. The safety and stability of steel strands are important issues during their operation period. Steel strand is subjected to various types of prestress loss which loosens the wedge anchorage system, negatively impacting the stability of the structure and even leading to severe accidents. In this paper, the authors propose a time reversal (TR) method to monitor the looseness status of the wedge anchorage system by using stress wave based active sensing. As a commonly used piezoceramic material, Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) with a strong piezoelectric effect is employed. In the proposed active sensing approach, PZT patches are used as sensors and actuators to monitor the steel strand looseness status. One PZT patch is bonded to the steel strand, one PZT patch is bonded to the wedges, and another PZT patch is bonded to the barrel. There are three different interfaces of the wedge anchorage system to monitor the steel strand looseness status. In the first method, the PZT patch on the steel strand is used as an actuator to generate a stress wave and the PZT patch on the wedge is used as a sensor to detect the propagated waves through the wedge anchorage system. In the second method, the PZT patch on the steel strand is used as an actuator to generate a stress wave and the PZT patch on the barrel is used as a sensor to detect the propagated waves through the wedge anchorage system. In the third method, the PZT patch on the wedges is used as an actuator to generate a stress wave and the PZT patches on the barrel is used as a sensor to detect the propagated waves through the wedge anchorage system, of which the looseness will directly impact the stress wave propagation. The TR method is utilized to analyze the transmitted signal between PZT patches through the wedge anchorage system. Compared with the peak values of the TR focused signals, it can be found that the peak value increases as the wedge anchorage system tightness increases. Therefore, the peak value of the TR focused signal can be used to monitor the tightness of the steel strand. In addition, the experimental results demonstrated the time reversal method’s reliability, sensitivity and anti-noise property. View Full-Text
Keywords: piezoceramics; Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT); prestress monitoring; steel strand; wedge anchorage system; time reversal method piezoceramics; Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT); prestress monitoring; steel strand; wedge anchorage system; time reversal method
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Zhang, X.; Zhang, L.; Liu, L.; Huo, L. Prestress Monitoring of a Steel Strand in an Anchorage Connection Using Piezoceramic Transducers and Time Reversal Method. Sensors 2018, 18, 4018.

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