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Open AccessArticle

Magnetic Resonance Imaging Compatible Non-Invasive Fibre-Optic Sensors Based on the Bragg Gratings and Interferometers in the Application of Monitoring Heart and Respiration Rate of the Human Body: A Comparative Study

1
Department of Telecommunications, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, VSB-Technical University of Ostrava, 17 Listopadu 15, 70833 Ostrava, Czech Republic
2
Department of Cybernetics and Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, VSB-Technical University of Ostrava, 17 Listopadu 15, 70833 Ostrava, Czech Republic
3
Department of Imaging Method, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ostrava, Syllabova 19, 70300 Ostrava, Czech Republic
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2018, 18(11), 3713; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18113713
Received: 17 September 2018 / Revised: 23 October 2018 / Accepted: 29 October 2018 / Published: 31 October 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fiber Optic Sensors for Biomedical Applications)
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Abstract

The publication presents a comparative study of two fibre-optic sensors in the application of heart rate (HR) and respiratory rate (RR) monitoring of the human body. After consultation with clinical practitioners, two types of non-invasive measuring and analysis systems based on fibre Bragg grating (FBG) and fibre-optic interferometer (FOI) have been designed and assembled. These systems use probes (both patent pending) that have been encapsulated in the bio-compatible polydimethylsiloxane (PMDS). The main advantage of PDMS is that it is electrically non-conductive and, as well as optical fibres, has low permeability. The initial verification measurement of the system designed was performed on four subjects in a harsh magnetic resonance (MR) environment under the supervision of a senior radiology assistant. A follow-up comparative study was conducted, upon a consent of twenty volunteers, in a laboratory environment with a minimum motion load and discussed with a head doctor of the Radiodiagnostic Institute. The goal of the laboratory study was to perform measurements that would simulate as closely as possible the environment of harsh MR or the environment of long-term health care facilities, hospitals and clinics. Conventional HR and RR measurement systems based on ECG measurements and changes in the thoracic circumference were used as references. The data acquired was compared by the objective Bland–Altman (B–A) method and discussed with practitioners. The results obtained confirmed the functionality of the designed probes, both in the case of RR and HR measurements (for both types of B–A, more than 95% of the values lie within the ±1.96 SD range), while demonstrating higher accuracy of the interferometric probe (in case of the RR determination, 95.66% for the FOI probe and 95.53% for the FBG probe, in case of the HR determination, 96.22% for the FOI probe and 95.23% for the FBG probe). View Full-Text
Keywords: interferometer; Bragg grating; heart rate (HR); respiratory rate (RR); phonocardiography (PCG); ballistocardiography (BCG); electrocardiography (ECG); polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS); vital signs; non-invasive measurements; patient monitoring; biomedical engineering; magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) interferometer; Bragg grating; heart rate (HR); respiratory rate (RR); phonocardiography (PCG); ballistocardiography (BCG); electrocardiography (ECG); polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS); vital signs; non-invasive measurements; patient monitoring; biomedical engineering; magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
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MDPI and ACS Style

Nedoma, J.; Kepak, S.; Fajkus, M.; Cubik, J.; Siska, P.; Martinek, R.; Krupa, P. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Compatible Non-Invasive Fibre-Optic Sensors Based on the Bragg Gratings and Interferometers in the Application of Monitoring Heart and Respiration Rate of the Human Body: A Comparative Study. Sensors 2018, 18, 3713.

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