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Sensors 2018, 18(11), 3661; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18113661

Critical Data-Based Incremental Cooperative Communication for Wireless Body Area Network

1
Department of Electrical and Communication Engineering, Cankaya University, 06530 Ankara, Turkey
2
Department of Computer Technical Engineering, College of Technical Engineering, The Islamic University, 54001 Najaf, Iraq
3
Bio Electromagnetic Research Group (BioEM), School of Computer and Communication Engineering University Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP), Pauh Putra, Arau, Perlis 02600, Malaysia
4
Faculty of Informatics and Computing, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin (UniSZA), Kuala Terengganu 21300, Malaysia
5
School of Engineering, University of Glasgow, G12 8QQ Glasgow, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 September 2018 / Revised: 19 October 2018 / Accepted: 25 October 2018 / Published: 28 October 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wireless Body Area Networks and Connected Health)
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Abstract

Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs) are single-hop network systems, where sensors gather the body’s vital signs and send them directly to master nodes (MNs). The sensors are distributed in or on the body. Therefore, body posture, clothing, muscle movement, body temperature, and climatic conditions generally influence the quality of the wireless link between sensors and the destination. Hence, in some cases, single hop transmission (‘direct transmission’) is not sufficient to deliver the signals to the destination. Therefore, we propose an emergency-based cooperative communication protocol for WBAN, named Critical Data-based Incremental Cooperative Communication (CD-ICC), based on the IEEE 802.15.6 CSMA standard but assuming a lognormal shadowing channel model. In this paper, a complete study of a system model is inspected in the terms of the channel path loss, the successful transmission probability, and the outage probability. Then a mathematical model is derived for the proposed protocol, end-to-end delay, duty cycle, and average power consumption. A new back-off time is proposed within CD-ICC, which ensures the best relays cooperate in a distributed manner. The design objective of the CD-ICC is to reduce the end-to-end delay, the duty cycle, and the average power transmission. The simulation and numerical results presented here show that, under general conditions, CD-ICC can enhance network performance compared to direct transmission mode (DTM) IEEE 802.15.6 CSMA and benchmarking. To this end, we have shown that the power saving when using CD-ICC is 37.5% with respect to DTM IEEE 802.15.6 CSMA and 10% with respect to MI-ICC. View Full-Text
Keywords: wireless body area network; critical data index; incremental cooperative communication; outage and successful probability; end-to-end delay; duty cycle; average power transmission wireless body area network; critical data index; incremental cooperative communication; outage and successful probability; end-to-end delay; duty cycle; average power transmission
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Al-Mishmish, H.; Alkhayyat, A.; Rahim, H.A.; Hammood, D.A.; Ahmad, R.B.; Abbasi, Q.H. Critical Data-Based Incremental Cooperative Communication for Wireless Body Area Network. Sensors 2018, 18, 3661.

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